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\ f 



The Narrative 


Gordon SeFar 

Emigraleil in Canuda in 1825 


MT'NTIXfJTMtN, (^1 F. 

1 (H -i 

('n/iyrioM. Canada, hy ttohrrl Sellar. lUl.-. 



Chapter I. 

While my mother was a servant in Glasgow she 
married a soldier. I have only a faint remembrance 
of my father, of a tall man in a red coat cominf; to 
see us in the afternoons and tossing me up and down 
to the ceiling. I was in my fourth year when his 
regiment was hurried to Belgium to fight Bonaparte. 
One day there rose a shouting in the streets, it was 
news of a great victory, the battle of Waterloo. At 
night mother took me to Argyle street to see the 
illuminations, and I never forgot the blaze of lights 
and the great crowd, cheering. At the Cross there 
were men with bottles, drinking the health of Wel- 
lington. When my mother caught me up to get past 
the drunken men she was shivering. Long after- 
wards, when I was able to put two and two together 
I understood it was her fear of what had happened 
father. She went often to the barracks to ask if 
any word had come, but except that the regiment 
was in the thick of the fight they could tell nothing. 
It might be three weeks after the battle that a ser- 
geant came to our room. Mother was out working 
He left a paper on the table and went away. When 


The Siirmth-e of 

mother came home late, she snatched the paper up, 
gave a cry that I hear yet, and taking me in her 
arms fell on the bed and sobbed as if her heart 
would break. I must have asked her what had 
happened, for I recall her squeezing ine tighter to 
her bosom and saying My fatherless boy. Long 
after, I met a comrade of my father, who told me he 
acted bravely all day and was cut down by a 
dragoon when the French charged on the infantry 
squares at the close of the battle. My mother got 
nothing from the government, except the pay that 
was coming to him, which she told me was 17s 6d. 
Mother kept on working, mostly out of door job.s, 
washing or house-cleaning, a neighbor being asked 
to look after me. When I got old enough, she would 
tell me, whi!e I was in bed, where she was going, 
and in the evening I would go and meet her. Some- 
times, not often, she got sewing to do at home and 
these were bright days. We talked all the time and 
she taught me much; not simply to read and write 
and cast little sums, but about everything she knew. 
My reading hook was the gospel of John, which she 
said was fullest of comfort, and it was then my faith 
in Christ took root. There could not be a more con- 
tented or cheerful mother, and her common expres- 
sion was that when we did our duty everything was 
for the best She had a sweet voice, and when she 
sang one of Burns' songs neighbors opened their 
doors to hear her. I was nearly ton when a bad 
time came. Mills closed, the streets were full of idle 
workmen, and provisions got dear. Mother got little 

(Jonlmi Si'lhir 

to do, and I know she often went hungry that I 
miRht be fed. She might have got her share of the 
relief fund, but would not think of it She told me 
time and again, to be independent. That hard win- 
ter made all the families in our close draw nearer 
to one another, and every hour there was some deed 
of helpfulness. The best friends of the poor are 
the poor. We were struggling on, hopeful and un- 
murmuring, when the word passed from landing to 
landing one morning that the boy who was sick in 
the first flat had been visited by a doctor, who said 
he had typhus. Mother took her turn in sitting up 
with him at night until he got the change and it was 
for the better. It might be a week after, I went to 
meet her on her way home from the place where she 
had been at work, and .saw how slow she walked and 
the trouble she had in getting up the stair to our 
room. She gav ■ me my supper and lay down on 
the bed to rest, for she said she was tired. Next 
morning she complained of headache and did not 
rise. Neighbors came in to .see her now and then. 
1 stayed by her, she had never been thus before. 
When it became dark she seemed to forget herself 
and talked strange. The woman next door gave her 
a few drops of laudanum in sugar and she fell 
asleep. When she woke next day she did not know 
me and was raving. Word was taken to the hospital 
and a doctor came. He said it was a bad case, and 
she be taken to the hospital at onci^ and he 
would send the van. It came, the two men with it 
lifted her from her bed and placed her on a stretcher. 




The Siirrativp of 

A crowd had gathered on the street to see her 
brou;;ht out and placed in the van. I thought I was 
to go with her, and tried to get Dn the seat. The 
helper pushed me away, but tlie driver bent over 
and gave me a penny. The horse started and I 
never saw my mother again. I ran after the van, 
but it got to the hospital lonij before I ivas in sight 
of it. I went to the door and said I wanted my 
mother; the porter roughly told me to go away. I 
waited in front of the building until it got dark, and 
I wondered behind which of the rows of lighted 
window.s mother lay. When cold to the bone I went 
back to our room. a. neighbor heard me cry and 
would liave me come to her kitchen tire and she 
<jave me some gruel. Sitting I fell asleep. 

I was told I must not go into our room, it was 
dangerous, so I went to the hospital and waited and 
watched the people go in and out. One gentleman 
with a kind face came out and I made bold to 
speak to him. When I said mother had fever he 
tolil me nobody could sec her, and that she would be 
taken good care of. I thought my heart would 
burst. I could not bear to stai on tlie Gallowgate, 
and so weary days passed in my keeping watch on 
the hospital. On Sunday coming, the neighbor who 
was so kind to me, .said she would go with me, for 
they allowed visitors to see patients on Sunday after- 
noon. We started, I trotting cheery in the thought 
I was about to see my mother. The clerk at the 
counter asked the name and disease. He said no 
visitors were admitted to the fever-ward. Could he 

Ounjon Sfllttr 


find out how she was? He spoke into a tin tul.e and 
coming back opened a big book. 'She died yester- 
day,' he said quite unconcerned. I could not help 
it, I gave a cry and fainted. As we trudged liome 
in tlie rain, the woman told me they had buried her. 
I had now no home. The landlord fumigated our 
room with sulphur, took the little furniture for the 
rent, and got another tenant. Everybody was kind 
but I knew they had not enough for themselves, and 
the resolve took shape, that I would go to tlie parish 
where my mother was bom. Often, when we took a 
walk on the Oreen, Sunday evenings, she would point 
to the hills beyond which herfather's home once was, 
and I came to think of that country-place as one 
where there was plenty to eat and coals to keep 
warm. How to get tliere I tried to plan. I must 
walk, of course, but how was I to live on the road? 
I was running messages for the grocer with whom 
motter had dealt, and he gave me a halfpenny 
when he had an errand. These I gave to tho woman 
where I slept and who was so kind to me despite her 
poverty. I was on London street after dark when a 
gentlenii.n came along. He was half-tipsy. Catch- 
ing hold of my collar he said if I would lead H' i to 
his house he would give me sixpence. He a 

number in Montieth row. I took his hand, v. .eh 
steadied him a little, and we got along s-lowly, and 
•were lucky in net meeting a policeman. When wo 
got to the number he gave me, I rang the bell. A 
man came to the door, who excla imed. At it again 
The gentleman stumbled in and 1 was going away 




" '''"■ \iirr/ili\i' III 

when he recollected me. Fumbling in hi, p,«ket he 
picked out a coin and put it into my hand, and the 
door closed. At the first lamp I looked at it; sure 
enoURh, he ha<I given me a .sixpence. I „ „ver 
joyed, and I said to myself, I can leave for Ayrshire 
now. I ,^..kene,l early next m.Tning an.l began my 
preparations. I got speMrins and .scones, tying them 
in the silk handkerchief mother wore roun.l her neck 
on Sumlays. That and her bible was all I had of 
her belongings Where ..,e rest had gone, a nu.nber 
of pawn tickets tol.l. I was in a hurry to be ofl' 
and tellmg the woman I was going to try the coun- 
try I bade her goodbye. She said, God help you 
poor boy, and kissed my eheek. The l^lls at the 
Cross were chiming out. The blue bells of Scotland 
when I turned the corner at the S.iltmarket 

It was a beautiful spring-day and when 1 had 
cleared the city and got right into the country 
everythmg ,v is so fresh nn.l pleasant that I could 
have shouted with joy. The he.Iges were bursting 
mto bloom, the grass was dotte.l with daisies and 
from the fields of brainl rose larks and other birds 
which .sang as if they rejoiced wiih me. I wondered 
why people should stay in the city when the coun- 
try was so much better. It had one draw-back the 
country-road was not as smooth as the pavement 
Thert was a cut in my left foot from stepping on a 
bit of gla.,s, and the dust and grit of the road got 
into It and gave me some pain. I „mst have walk- 
ed for three hours when I came to a burn that cross- 
ed the road. I sat on a stone and bathe.l my foot 

Ilonhm St*Unr 

aiul witli it .Iniifiliiiu; in the wuter I ate a. ffuhWrn 
aii.l II >cntii.. On st.lrtiM^' tu walk, I f,iiinil iny fo<,t 
wursi.. ini.l liii,l to ff< sliiw iin.l tiiko nmiiy n rn.t, 
Wli.ii tliu j;!oaniing cunie I was on the l(K>k out for 
a place to pass the ni.,'ht. On Hnding a cosey ^pot 
liehin.l a clump of hushes, I took my supper, lay 
down, anil fell asleep, for I was ileuil weary. The 
whistlin;^ of a l.lackhinl near my lieiul woke me an<l 
I saw the snn was getting hi<rh. My foot was much 
worse but I hail to go on. Taking from my l.un.lle 
of provisions a.s sparingly as my hunger wouM hit 
me, I starteil. It was another tine clay and hail my 
hurt toot been well I thought I woul.l reach my 
mother's parish before long. I coiii.l not walk. I 
just limpeJ. Carts me, but woulil not give 
me a lift. My bare feet ami head and ragged clothes 
made them suspicious, and as for tl.e gentlemen in 
gigs they did not look at me. When 1 came to .spring 
or burn I put my foot in it, for it was hot and swol- 
len now. At noon I tinished the food in my bundle 
anil went on. I 1 ad not gone far when I ha o stop, 
and was holding my sore foot in a spring „I-,mi a 
tinker came along, He asked what was wrofig. 
Drawing ,i long pin out of his coat eollar he felt 
along the cut, and then sipieezed it liiril. I see it 
now, he remarked, and fetching from his pouch a 
pair of pincers he pulled from the cut a sliver of 
glass. Wrapping the cloth round it he tied it with 
a bit of black tape, and told me if I kept dirt out 
it would heal in a day or two. Asking iiie where I 
was going, we had some talk. He told m^- the parish 



The Till- Xnrriitiif „t 

of Dun,lon.l,l was « long way <,ff «„,! he <li,l „„t 
know .inyho<ly in it by the mime ,,f Askew. I was 
on the right road and could Hnd i.iit wh.n I got 
there. He lit his pipe «„d left me. I walked with 
more ease, an.l the farther I went the hungrier I 
grew. Coming to a by the side of the road I 
went to the open <loor and askeil for a cake. J have 
nothing for beggars, cried a woman by the fire I 
am no beggar, I answered, I will pay you and held 
out a halfpenny. She sUred at me. '■ ike these 
stoups and Hll the.n at the well. The hill was steep 
and the stoups heavy, but I managed to carry them 
back , ac at a time and placed them on the bench 
She handed me a fari of oatcake and I went away 
It w. . the sweetest bite I ever got. It was not 
nearly dark when I climbed a dyke to i;et into a 
sheltered nook and fell asleep. ,So„„.th. - soft and 
warm licking my face woke me. It was a dog and 
■ t was broad day. What are you doing here, laddie? 
said the dogs master who was a young fellow, per- 
haps SIX <,r .seven years older than myself. His staff 
and the collie showed me he was a shepherd. I told 
him who I was and where I was trying to go. Collie 
again smelt at me and wagged his tail as if telling 
Ins master I w,is all right. I went with the lad who 
said his name was A .hie. He le.l to where his 
sheep were and we sat down in the sunshine, for it 
was another warm day. We talked and we were 
not ten minutes together when we liked each other 
He unwrapped from a cloth some bannocks and 
something like dried meat, win. h be .said was braxie 


(ionhm Sflhir 

It WM hia noon-Lite, but he told me to int it for lie 
uid, we go buck to the shelter to-iiay, ami by »c he 
meant collie. He had been lonesome and was glad 
of company and we chattered on by the hour. A t 
noon, leaving collie in charge of the sheep, we went 
to the hut where he «tayed and had something to 
eat. He said his father was shepherd to a liig farmer, 
who hod sent him with two score of shearling ewes 
to get highland pasture. We talked about every- 
thing we knew t.nd tried to make each other lau^h. 
He told me aboui Wallace, and we gripped liaiids on 
saying we would light tor Scotland like him, ami I 
told him about Glasgow, where he h;.d not been. A 
boy came with a little basket and a message. The 
message was from his father, that he was to bring 
the sheep back eaiiy on Monday, and the basket was 
from his mother with food and a clean shirt for the 
Sabbath. We slept on a sheepskin and wakened to 
hear the patter of rain. After seeing his sheep and 
counting them, Archie said we must keep the Sab- 
bath, and when we lind settled in a dry corner of the 
hillside he heard me my questions. I coii'd not go 
further than Who is the Redeemer of God's elect? 
lut he could go to the end. Then I repeated the 
inree paraphrases my mother had taught me, but 
Archie had nearly all of them and several psalins 
A shepherd would be tired if he did not learn by 
heart, he said; some knit but I like reading best. 
Then he took my mother's bible and read about 
David and Goliath. That over he started to sing 
Oh we had a tine time, and when a shower caiue 




111" Siimitlv lit 

Arcluo »prc.*l Ins pl„i,| like ,, fiit „v,t lh« Luslio, 
an.l wu ,nt undt-r it. lie t»M „,„ what lio i„oa„t to 
'lo wl,i.„ 1,„ w«.s a ,„„„, Hf «■«, „„i„„ i„ c'm,a.l» 
»n.l «,.t a fartii. iin.l «.n.l for th.. «|,„|,. (^,„y\y /^^ 
Wf mng^M in tor tl,.! niKl.t, ho t„l,l r,t. ht- w„„id 
n .t furKft me «,„! hu wu, ^M <.„Mi„ 'nui no*.,! ,„e 
out ,n Ih,. huHhf,,. If I fo,„„l in ti,., mornioB !■« 
was ^um: I w«H to t,iku what h.i luft rii,. to eat. Sure 
enough I .slept in; he was ^rone with tlui .sheep. I 
.'ai.l a piTiyer for liim ami took the roa,l. 

It was ►hower an.l shine all .lay. I r,„,te,l „„ ,„y 
way as fast as I coul.l, for the cut was still ten.ler ni^ht I neare.l a little villa,{e an.l .saw an 
ohl nmn .sittinj; on the .loorstep rea.linjr. I a-ke.l 
liiiu if I was on the ri);ht roa.l to Dun.h.nal.l. He 
replieil I was, htit it was t,H) far away to reacli 
la^ ,lark, an.l he put a few .,ucsti.,ns to .ne. 
A-kin){ nic t.. .sit besi.le him we ha.l a talk. I)i.i 
y..u ever .see that book.' hol,li„K .,ut the ,aie he was 
reading. 'It is ACIou.l of W,tuos«s an I fjives the 
story of the .lays of per.-ecution. I wish every man 
in Sc.tland knew what it contains, for there would 
he n.orc of the right stuff among us. I was just 
rca.linK, for the hundredth time, I supp,,se, the trial 
of Marion Harvie, an.l h.,w he wh., was afterwards 
James King of England c.n.sente.l to .,end her, a 
poor frail woman, to the gallows'. From the Coven- 
anters 1,.! passetl to polities. He was a weiiver an.l 
di.l not the governn.ont, telling me, seeing where 
I came fro.n, I must grow rp to he a (ilaRg.,rw 
c«l. Seeing I was homei-ss, he .sai.l he would 

finnlttli St^/htr 


fend in« for the night, ami, guing into the house, ha 
bniught out a coggie of niillc ami a barley «one. 
When I had Boinh.Ml, he took me to the hyre and 
left me in a >tall of straw, telling nie to leave early 
for Ilia wife hated gungrel Ijodiis and would not, 
when »lic came in, rent content, if she knew there 
was anyhoily in the aUhlo. Wlun claylight caino 
it »ii» raining. I ntarted without anyUnly seeing 
me 'ruin the housr. I was siH)n wet to the nkin, but 
I truilged on, saying to myself every now and then 
You're a Scotchman, never say die. There were few 
on the road, and when I met a iio.Htniftn and asked 
ho'V far I was from Dundonald, Ids curt reply was. 
You are in it. I was dripping «.t and oh so per- 
ished with colli and Imnijer that I maile up my 
mind to stop at the first house I came to. As it 
happened, it Koa a farmhouse a little bit from the 
road. I went to the kitchen-door where there was 
a hen trying to keep her chicks out of the rain. 
There were voices of children at play and of a as if crooning a bab<! to sleep. I stooil a 
while before I ventured to knock. There was no 
answer and after waiting a lew minutes I knocked 
again. A boy of my own age opened the door. An 
old woman came towards me and a.sked what I want- 
ed. I am cold, I said, aij, please, might I warm 
myself? She was deaf and did not catch what I 
said. 'Whose bairn are you?' she asked me. Mary 
Askew's, I replied, 1 noticed the younger woman 
who had the child in her lap fixed her gase on me. 
Where ai-a you from? grannie asked. From Glas- 

Thf Xiitniihf nf 

gown, I „„ «, c.,1,1. Uyi„« ,|„w„ ,h, .h,,,, ;„ 
th. rr.,|l„, the yoi-ngor wo,„,„ «.,„, „, „, „j 

niutl„.r l«l„„Kf .he „|,...l i„ , |,i„,, ,„i^ 'g^^ 
«me fr.H„ the p.ri.1, of Ou.„;„„.l,|, .A„.| wh.„ ,-, 
yourfatherr He i. .,e*.. Amli, your ,„otl,.r in 
(JI«K..w» She ,lie,l in ,he h^piul. .nd the thought 
of tut «,1 time .... the te.r, ranning ,|own my 
cheek, 'Vou poor n,otherl.«. b«irnr ,ho cxcl.ime.i 
0... ,t 1* you ,„ the chiMof my„l,|«hool con- 
P«n,„„? H.i,„ you ,„y brother, or »i,ter,f No I 
h.v. nolK^ly in the world. Ui,! your mother le.'e 
you MofhrnKf In .ny ,i,„p|icity, „ot u- ' standing 
.he n,™„t worldly Rear, I untied my bun.lle, un 
covered the cloth I had w,»ppe,, round it to keep 
>t dry, ,„u handed her the bible. She looked at 
howntmg. ■Ire.neml«rwhen,h. .t, a, a pri.„ 

for repeafnK the II 9th p.«lm v , .t ,ni„i„. a 
word. Putting her arm, round „,y -k she kill 
me and holding me tc the liRht she y.. i Tou have 
your mother'., eyes and mouth.' 

The lK,y an.l girl to.,k me to the fire, and, when 
grannie wa, got to undenitan,! who I w.. ,be 
bu,tled roun.l to heat over some of the hroth' left 
from dmner and while it wa, warming the little 
g.rl forced her p.ece into my mouth. The other 
hoy came to me full of curiosity. Feeling my leg. 
he wlnspered, You're stervit. Byand-by « cart 
drove ,„i„ the yanl. It wa, the master with hi, 
hired man. When he was told who I wa,, he called 
•ne to him and patted me on the head. That night 

flortfitti .S'//;(r 

I ulept with Alliin. tli« nmiii' of thr t.l.lir lK>y. Hit 
bnitht-r'» naint' w»« H.l>. iiii.l tlin jfirl- Alir... The 
luihy h«l ln'cii cliri«U>iii'.l. The ii iiiir cif the 
■nutfr cjf the hoii»e »h« Amlrcw AniliT-ipu. 


The Xarratirn of 


Hating to be a burden on tl,e family I was eager 
to work Too weak for tarn, duties. I helped atout 
the house and eanie, in course of time, to earn a good 
word fron, grannie. Tho of the same age, there was 
a great difference between Allan and myself He 
coul.l lift weights I could not move, .:!d not get tired 
as I dul, an,l as the str..nger took care of me We 
were all happy and getting-on well when trouble 
came from an unlooked for quarter. The n.aster got 
nofc. from the factor that, on his lease running out 
the followmg year, the rent wouUI be raised He 
<M not look for this. During his lease he had made 
many improvements at his own cost and thouglit 
tliey would more than count against any in the 
value of farm lands. He remonstrated with the fac- 
tor, wlio said he could ,lo nothing, his lordship wanted 
more revenue from his estate and there was a man 
ready to take the farm at the advanced rent He 
was sorry, but the master had to pay the rent asked 

f/onlfiii SeHiir 


or leave tlie plrtce. If I go, wliat will be aliowt-d 
me for tlie iiiipi-oveiiients I have made? Not a shil- 
ling; he lind gone on nmkiiig them without the Inml- 
Inrds consent. You kuw me makin;; them and eii- 
coiirnged me, s^uid tlie niastfr, and 1 iiuule ti.ein in 
the helief I would he given another tack to get simie 
of the proHt out of them. I'he factor replied. Tut, 
tut, that's not the law i)f Scotland. The master felt 
very sore at the injustice done him. On his lord- 
alup'fl arrival from London, accompanied liy a party 
of his English iViemls, fur the shuoting, the master 
resolved to ,-ee hini. On the morning he left to in- 
terview him we wished hitn good luck, confident the 
landlord would not uphold the factor, and we wearied 
for his return. The look on his face as he cauie into 
the kitchen showed he had failed. He toM u.i all 
that pa.>^sed. On getting to the grand house and 
telling the Hunkey he had come to see his master, 
the tluiikey regarded him with disdain, and replied 
his lordship was engaged and would not .see him 
Persisting in refusing to leave the door and telling 
that he wa- a tenant, tlie flunkey left and returned 
with a young gentleman, who asked what was his 
bu-iness, saying he was his lordship's -secretary. (Jn 
being to!d, the young man shook his lieail. saying 
bis lordship left all such matters to his factor, and 
it would dtt no good to see bini. Just then a tinely 
dresse<l lady swept into the hall. Pausing, she cried, 
'Tompkins, what does that couimondot)king inan want 
here? Tell him to go U> the servants' entry.' 'He 
wants to see liis lordship,' was the replj'. 'The idea!' 



«cl.„„ed t..e l,dyas sho ..«,ed the floor »„d dU- 

go. Ill,„p w,ll not seo you today.' -VVhen will 

1.0 l.e at liberty to see, nor asked theLster I w 
con-e«^en it suits his pleasure. I n.ust have h 1 
word of ,„o„th that what the factor says is hi d ! 

rZ T ''"''"■' '""'-' '-'''^''' -" "f^' 
p..t in.^ a few ,,uest,o„s, them that he h«l 

pa. Ins rent and wanted no favor heyond renewal 
of h,s lease on th. old tern.s, he told my father to 
«a.t a nnnute and left. It might be half an hour 
or ,„o,.e when a (lunkey heekone.! the .naster to f„I- 
"W h,,n. I'ln-owing open a door he ente,-ed wh.t l,« 
took to he the library, for it had shelve., of hooka 
H,s lo,dsh,p was alone, seated by the h-replac3 with 
a newspaper „n his lap. .X„w, say what you hav. 
to say ,„ fewest words,' said the nobleman. .St«„d- 
>'<'A ..■lo,.e hi,„ the master told how he had taken 
the fa,,, 19 years ago, ha,l observed every condition 
uf the, and had gone beyon.l them in keeping 
the farm ,„ good heart, for ho had i,uproved it i„ 
n,any ways, especially .luring the past few year, 

";''™ '"= '•" '^'l""' '"■•1 limed and levelled a bog.v 

p.eceof l„„d.a„,l changed it from growing ru.ts 
mto the best pasture-Held on the farm. 'Gin the 
tar,„ ,s worth ,nore, it is me who has made it and I 
crave your lordship to either give me another tack 
at the .same rent or pay ,ne what .„y better.nents ar. 
worth. Hi. Lordship turne.l and touche.i a bell 

Gordon Sellar 

On the Hunkey appearing, he said to him, 'SIiow this 
fellow to the door,' and took up his newspaper. As 
the master Hnlshed, he said to us, 'Dear an every 
acre of the farm is to me, I will leave it and go where 
the man who works the land may own it and where 
there are no lords and dukes, nor baronets. I am a 
man and never again will I usk as a, favor what is 
my due of any iellow-mortal with a title.' We went 
to bed that night sorrowful and fearing what was 
before us. 

When he took anything in hand the master went 
through with it. Before the weok was out be had 
given up tlie farm, arrangt-d for an auction sale, and 
for going to Canada. My heart was tilled with mis- 
givings as to what would become of me. I knew 
crops had been short for tw" years, and, though he 
was even with the world, the master liad nut a pound 
to spai'e, and di'prnded on the auction-sale For the 
money to pay for outtit and passage to C'anadn. I 
had no right to expect he would pay for uie, and all 
the mure that be wo.: , have no use for a lad .such 
as I was in his new home. It was not so much of 
what might happen to myself after tliey were gone 

'at I thiiught about, as of parting with the family, 
lor I loved every one of them. I knew ihvy were 
considering what to do witli me, and one day, on the 
master getting me alone, he seemed relieved on tell- 
ing me the new tenant of the farm was going to 
keep mc on for my meat. I tlianked him, for it was 
better than I looked for. These were days get- 
ting ready. Alice noticed tbat, in all the making of 




'it .V»;rar;rc nf 

clotl.e,., there were none for ,„e, an,l I overhenrd her 
«k mother, who answered in a whisper, that 
they ha.l not money enough to take ,„e along with 
them. Ahce was more considerate than ever with 
mo. To tlieir going grnnnie proved an obstacle She 
would not leave .Scotland, .she declared, she would 
be b .ned in it, .she wouhl go to no strange country 
^t ..lone a cold one like Canada, nor cro.s, the sea.' 
Her favorite of the family was Robbie, on when ,h. 
doted. 'You will not leave bin,?' asked the mistre^ 
Uu, he 11 gang with me to Mirren's,' the n, • of her 
dau,,hter in Glasgow. -Oh, no; Robbie goes with ua 
to Canada. It was a struggle with the dear ol.l .,„ul 
and m the end she decided she would brave the At- 
lantic rather than part with her boy. 

The last day came. The chests, and plenishing for 
the home they looked forward to in Canada, had 
gone the day before and been stowed in the ship 
at Troon, an,l the carts stood at the door to receive 
the fa.ndy and their hand-hags. The children and 
nl were seated a-,d the n^aster turned to me b..fore his place. He shook n,y hand, and tried 
to say something, but could not, for his voice failed 
Pressing half « erown in my little Hst he moved to 
Bet beside the driver, when Robbie cheepe.1 out a-s- 
tonished, -Is Gordie no to go wi' us?' .Whist my 
boy; we will send for him byand-by.' At this 
Robbie .set up a howl, and hi, brothers and sisters 
.joined in his weeping. Ti e master was sorely moved 
and wl:.snered with his wife His pas.sage-nioney 
will make me break my big note,' I lieard him 

(I onion Splliir 

say to her. 'Trust in the Lord,' fhe answered, 'I 
canna thole the thought of leaving the mitherlew 
bttirn to that Iiard man, John Stoddart; he'll work 
the poor weak fellow to death.' Without another 
word, the master lioistcd me on top of the haggage, 
the carts moved on, and Robbie looked up into my 
face with a smile. We were driven alongside the 
ship as she lay at the quay. She was a roomy brig, 
and was busy uiking on cargo. Our part of the hold 
was shown to us, and tlie at once V)egan to 
unpack the bedding, and to make the U'St of every- 
thing. 'Is it not iUi awful black hole to put Chris- 
tians into?' asked a woman who was taking her first 
survey. 'Well, no, I do not think so; it is far better 
than I expected.' She had a gracious way, the mis- 
tress, of looking at everything in the best light. 

In the afternoon a man came on board to see the 
captain about taking passage, and they agreed. He 
hail no baggage, and as the ship only supplied part 
of the provisions he had to go to buy what he need- 
ed for the voyage. He asked the master to let me 
go with him to help to carry back his bedding and 
parcels. We went from shop to shop until he had 
got everything on his list; last of all he visited a 
draper and bought cloth. On getting back to the 
ship he was tapped on the shoulder by a seedy look- 
ing fellow who was waiting for him, and who said, 
'You are my prisoner.' The man started and his 
face grew white, I thought it strange he did not 
as.*.,, w hat he was a prisoner foi. 'Will you go quiet- 
ly or will I put on?' asked the man, showing 

' 1 

r 6 

f 9 

1:1 4« J 


Tlin Xarratiw of 

a pair of h»ncJcu«s in hia coat pocket. 'I will give 
you no trouble,' was the answer, 'only allow the boy 
to stow these parcels ami bags in my berth.' 

I think the boy haj better come with you; I will 
waic till he i, rea,ly.' I won lere.l what he could 
want with me. He led us up the street to a largo 
building where he placed us in charge of a man even 
more and with a wor.e look than him.self. It 
was ,,uitea while before he returned and led us into 
a large room. There was a long table, at its head 
sat two well-dres.sed gentlemen, and at each side 
men with papers before them. 'Hay it plea.^e your 
lordship nn.l Bailie McSweem, the pri.soner Iwing 
p-esent we will now procee.l.' He went on to ex- 
plain that the prisoner was a member of one of 
political associations that wore plotting to subvert 
the government of the ciuiitry. even thinking they 
could organize a revolution and drive his majesty 
from the throne. He need not dwell on the danger 
State and Church wore in from the plottings of those 
desperate men, and the need of a|i upholders of the 
Crown and Constitution suppressing them with a 
firm hand. 

The gentleuian who was addressed as his lordship 
nodded in approval, and .said, 'Tbere is no need, Mr 
Sheriff, of referring to those unhappy matters as' we 
are fully cognizant of them. What about the pri- 
soner V 

'He is a member of the Greenock union, proceed- 
ings were about to lie taken for his arrest on a charge 
of sedition, when somehow he got wind of what was 

(lorrlon S«<Ihir 

about to take place and, knowing he was guilty, 
uttcmptetl to rice the country. I can produce, if you 
sfty .so, witnesses to prove tlmt lie skulked into 'J'nxm 
by back streets and secured passage coCana<lai»n tlie 
Heatherbell, wliicb .'•ails in a few hours. I Imvc onu 
witness now present.' 

His lordship remarked the .Slierifl' de.-ervfd cifiit 
for his vigilance and the promptitude with which he 
acted. *I suppose,' he added, 'we have nothing more 
to do than order his being sent to Greenock for ex- 
amination and trial?' 

'That is all we need do,' answered the Shoritf. .Jusfc 
then a loud voice was heard in the liall demanding 
adnii.-^.sion, a sound as it' the dooi-ketper was pullifd 
aside, and a sharp-featured man came in. 'What 
business have you to enter here?" dematuhfl the 

'I will soon show you. What are you doing with 
that man?' pointing to the prisoner. 

Leave at once, or I will onltT you to be ejected.' 

The man, who was quite composed, said t<» the 
prisoner. 'Mr Kerr, do you authorize me to act im 
your attorney?' 

'Yes,' he answered. 'Very well, then, I am here 
by right. Now, Mr Sheriff, hand mr over the papers 
in the' 

The Sheriff", who was red in the face, 'I shall not, 
you have no right here; you're not a lawyer.' 

Addre.-^sing the magistrates the man said he was a 
merchant, a burgess of the city of Glasgow, harl been 
chosen by the accused as his attorney and was acting 

I' « 
i t 

Thr SnrnitUf uf hii rights in clernaiKling to see the papers. 
The majjistratos consuitud In ii whisper nnd his h)rd- 
ship reniiirked there could be no objection. The 
Sheriff, liowever, continue,! to clutch them. You 
ask liim; was the order of the stranger to Kerr, 'lie 
dare not refuse you.' RoluoUntly the Sheriff liand- 
ed thein to the strunR<T, who ipiickly jjlftiiced over 
them. 'Is this alir he demanded. 'Ye.s that is all,' 
snapped the Sheriff. 
'Where is the warrant for Kerr's arrest?' 
'None of your business where it is.' 
Speaking to the bench, the strangLT said was 
neither information nor warrant amonj; the papers 
he held in his hand. The only authority they had 
for holding Kerr was a letter fn„., « clerk at 
Greenock, stating one Robert Kerr, accused of sedi- 
tion, had fded before the papers couKI be made out 
for his arrest, and that, if he found trying to 
take ship at Troon, to hold him. 'I warn you,' "said 
the stranger, shaking his fist, 'that you have made 
yourselves liable to heavy penalties in arresting 
Robert Keir on the stre.igth of a mere letter. There 
is no deposition whatever, no warrant, and yet a 
peaceable man, going about in his lawful business, 
has been seized by your thief-takers and made pri- 
souer. If you do not release him at once I go forth- 
with to Edinburgh and you will know what will 
happen you by Monday.' He went on with much 
more I do not recall, but it was all threats and warn- 
ings of what would befall all cimccrned if Kerr was 
not released. The Sheriff at last got in a word. 

liunlnn S-thir 

'Tlu' cliurj^e is -eiliti-n and iinliimry prucosn of 
proct'<l«rt' (111 n't lip 

'You ini(,'lit liiiVb saiil that 30 years ago whi-n yoii 
infurnal Torios sont Tlioiims Muii- of Huntershill to 
his il™tli, anil William Hkiiviiig ami others to l>an- 
islmient for seeking reform in representation and 
uphohling the right of petition, but you are not aMe 
now to make the law to suit your ends. Yon are 
holding this man without shadow of law or justice, 
and I demand his heing set at liberty.' 

'Quite an authority in law!' sneered the .Sheriff 

'Ye.s, 1 have been three times before the court of 
session and won each time. I knew your fallicr, 
wlio was a decent shoemaker in Cupar and when he 
sent you to learn to be ii lawyer he litile thought he 
was making a tool for those he despised. Tick a 
man from the plow, clap on his back a black coat, 
send him to college, and in five years he is a Con- 
servative, and puckers hi.s mouth at an\ thing ,so vul- 
gar as a Reformer, booing and clawing to the gentry 
and nobility. Dod, set a beggar on h.rseliack and 
he will ride o>cr his own father, and your father 
was no lick-the-ladle like you, but a Liberal who 
stood up for his rights.' The bitterne-s and force 
with which the stranger spoke cowed his iiearers. 

'These insults are too much,' stammered the Bailie. 

The stranger at once turned upon him. 'O, this is 
you McSweem, to whom I have sold many a box of 
soap and U:& when you wore an apron and kept a 
grocer's shop. Set you up and push yoi! forward, 
indeed. You have got a bit of an estate with your 

f t 

> i 
I' < 
I t 




Tltp S/irniliyp ut 

wife's money unci call yourself a lainl: The grand 
folk liavin;; taken you under tlieir oint;, yim fiir({"'t 
that you once .lat, cheek-hy-jowl, with Jnsipli (lerrald, 
and now you sit in juilginent on a l^^tter man than a 
dozen like you.' 

'Mr Sheritf,' shuuted his lordship. Remove tliit 
man to tlic cells.' 

'I da-e you to put a Knger on nie,' ami he grasped 
a chair reaily to knock down the oflicer who ad- 
vanced to otiey the order. 'I am within my lawful 
rights. Dod, wee Henderson would ask nothing ls.'t- 
ter than to prosecute you liefure the lords of session 
were you to keep ine in jail even for an hour. lie- 
lease this innocent man Kerr, and let us go.' 

'You are a vulgar bully,' eiclaimed his lorilship 

The stranger dropped his hitter toni', anil aske.l 
smoothly, 'May I ask your lordship a question? Wdl 
you condescend to say how many of your lordship's 
relatives are in government offices, ami is it true 
your wife's mother draws a pensiim, all of them 
living out of taxes paid l.y the commonalty whom 
you ilespise?' 

His lordship affected not to hear him, leckon- 
ing the Sheriff to draw near, he conferred «ith the 
magistrates in whispers. I overlieard Bailie Mc- 
Sweein say, ■! know him, he's a perfect devil 
to tight; better have nothing to do with liim,' 
and the Sheriffs remark, "He has got a legal catch to 
work on.' When the Sheriff went hack to his seat, 
his lordship said curtly, 'The accused is discharged,' 

(Ionian SfllMr 

and he anil McSwctin hurriedly left. The stranKer 
gripped Kerr l>y the shoulder and pushed him li.furB 
him until we reached the street. Now, 1 must have 
you, for I must see what my cust.iiner are out of.' 

'Tell mo your name?' a»ked Kerr, that I may know 
who has done me such service.' 

'Never mind; you are under no ohligation tn me. 
A wee hird told me you were in Irouhle and I am 
glail to have bi>en in time to serve you.' 

■You do not kno.v uil the service you have done; 
you have .saved more than myself from jail, and an 
innocint wife and children from poverty. Do let me 
know your name that I may rememlwr it as long as 
I live.' 

'Daniel M'farlane, enil my advice is to quit Scot- 
land rif;ht off, for these devils are mad angry at your 
giving them the slip. They will get the papers they 
need from Greenock and have you in jail if you 
are here tomorrow.' A grip of the hand, and the 
stranger was gone. The whole scene was such a 
surprise, !o novel to me, that every part of it fas- 
tened on my memory. 

On reaching the l.rig we found the sailors stowing 
away casks of water Kerr and my.self had l*en 
given the same herth, and Allan and Robbie had the 
next one. Saying he was <lead-tired, for he had 
been on his feet since leaving Greenock, Kerr turned 
in though the sun hail not set. An hour or .so after, 
a number of men came to the wharf to .«ee him. I 
found him asleep They asked if I was the lad the 
officer took along with him to be a witness. Gathir- 

< ' i 

I t 



Thr S'»rr»tl\r iii 

Ing in « (|ui«t ci.riicr they lia.l in« r..|»^«t til that 
took pliicf. Tliiy siiiil they wen^ Liliemli anil ){l<ul 
to heur the liluck nebs liiul won. 

The noise uveHieaci of wa-liirijf the .h-ck awoke 
me, ami I knew l.y the nioticn of the •.hip we were 
•»ilin){. On K''ttin){ up I haw Tr.ion .-everal niilen 
behind anil Ailsa Cnii^ ilrawin;^ near. Allan ami 
my sell', with Rol.liie hetween us, weic snu^tjleil on 
the he side of the loni;lii>at when Keir appeaivil. 
He was interested on hearinj; of the men wlm came 
to visit him and said it was hard to lie houmleil 
out of .Scotland, which he did not wi>h to leave, for 
layint,' constitutional reforms were called for 'I am 
no worse used,' he added, than the man whom that 
county we are liKikinf{ at .starved when he was 
amonj; them and huilt monuments to him when he 
was ihad.' The town of Ayr was in si^dit and he 
named several of the points Burns hud named in his 
TOUffs. 'Think, my lH.i.:ii; , • „ niaji Wk" Hiinis be- 
ing tohl l.y the officials over liim to keep his Liberal 
views to himself, that it wa.s not for him to think 
but to be silent and oliedient. And he had to swal- 
low their onler to prevent his{ the [M'tty office 
which stood lietwcen his children and starvation.' 
The breeze that had taken the brij; so fur down the 
Hrth soon died away, and we rocked gently south of 
Ailsa I'raij;. In the hold folk were busy getting 
things in .some sort of order, while on deck the sailors 
were putting everything in shipshape. This breath- 
ing spell was fortunate, for at dark the wind came 
in squalls, and on rounding the Mull of Cantyre the 

litinliili Sriliir 

ocuun nHflls Mmt moot of tli; y,M»i-ne,t^ to their 
hrth» .cnsick. I ,.»cii|».l unl whh all,. i„ l„.||, tl,o 
fiiii.ily ,,ml Mr K.rr. who „|„,„,t collnpw,!, „„,] «., 
not liiin»,.|f for « wivk, II,., tir,,t ,!;;„ of r.T..v,.ry 
wii» Ills iT»vii,« for n n..l l„.rrin«. Tin. misir..,, w«h 
™rly up mihI iMistlinK roun.l to Hti.l ,li,. I,u,l t.i fum 
an ..ntir.. L-lmny,. i„ th,. iTi,.tl,o.l» of l,o,iM..k..,.i.ii,(; to 
whirh si.,. Im.l h,.,.i, i,„.,|. 'I'lLTL. „.„, „ iim„ |,„„^^ 

'"■'*'■•■" ""■ '»■ "»ts nai I till. ;;„||,.y ,„„| |„,„ 

th,. L-ooliini; «■«, ,|,„„.. Th,. fok was an oM i„iui. 
Kniirun.l misty, who ha.l spi.nt most ..f his hfc in a 
Dnn.!,... «lml,.r. In thu Arctic n-^ion his ;.,h„1 n». 
tur,. had .',,t frozen an.l was not y,.t tha«-,-.l . iit. 
II,- w,.ul,l allow nol, near and ^.ot ,;ni;ry when 

sUftKi'stions w,.r,. t»n,l,.r,.,l. II,. nia.l,. .; l"porri,lge 

ami t,isty soup. aMythin^ h,- spoi|,'.,|. As 
al,.n,. Wfr,. i-,.ok,..l in hulk ami r,„.,isuri..l ,,ut, the 
passi.nK'iTs to..k to th,. sralh.y th,. f,„„l thi.y wis),,-,! 
to ;.,. cook,..!. ...ich family -,t l.,»,.k what th,.y 
Kftv,.. in. the f,H.,l was plac,.,! in hai;s of n,.ttc.l twine 
.ml then slipp,.,| into th,. copp,.rs of hoilin;, water. 
The mistress was a fam.ius at rohy-poley, and 
for the first Sun.l.iy aft,-r sea-siekn,.ss l.a.l ^one, she 
preparc.1 a hi^ one ,w a treat. It lookul nVht and 
.smelled f;,H>,l, hut the first .spoonful show,.,l it lia.l a 
womlerful Havor. In the holier the net it held 
anuckleof .smoked ham. The laughter an.l jokes 
made us forget the t.i.ste ,>f the ham and not a scrap 
of tl.c roley.poley was left. Our greatest lack was 
milk for the children, an,l we all resented being 

• J 

> 4*1 J 
I 1 

' Ox. 


Tli9 Nurr.'itire of 

scrimped in drinking-wutiT, tliuiiyli litt,^re tliu voyage 
ended we became reconciled to that, for the water 
ffrew bad. 

Oorihm Sflhr 

Chaiter III 

There were 43 pas-^L-iifjurs. There were two Uini- 
lies besides our own, and outside of them were a 
number ot youn^' men, plowmen and shepherds, in- 
tent on getting- land and sending; fur their people to 
join thoui the n.xt spring'. There was an exceptittn 
in a middle-ajjed man, hrisk ami spruce, who held 
himself to he ahove his fe!low-passeni;ers, and said 
nothini,' aliout where he came from or who he was. 
The only information he ^ave wa.s, that he had been 
in the mercantile line, and that ho was to be address- 
ed as Mr Snellc^rove. He waved his right hand in 
conversation and spoke in a lofty way, which to 
Allan and myself was funny. When he had crQt his 
sealegs and his appetite, he hei;an lecturin^j the pas- 
sengers as to what they ought to ilo, enlarging on 
organizing a committee, ot which he was to bo head. 
I think I see him, strutting up and down the deck 
by the 8id» of the captain with .vliom it gratified 
him to walk. The only other passanger besides him 
who wa.s not connected with fanning was Mr Kerr, 



ill I 



TA*» Sarrntivp of 

to whom I liectime much attached. He wps well- 
inforim-d on sul.jccts I had lieard of but knew noth- 
injr, and wo talked by tho hour. His companionship 
was to me an intellectual awakening. Amonj; his 
purchases in Troon was material t'l a suit of clothes, 
whicli he made durinj^ the voyaj^e, for he was a 
taihir. He had left Greenock in such haste that he 
had not time to giy to his lod;^ing for any of his he- 
]ongin;,'s. Mrynellgrove affecte<l to despise him both 
for his trade ami his political principles, and never 
missed an opportunity to sneer at him; Mr Kerr 
never replied. 

Day followed day without rL-iieving the monotony. 
At times we would get a glimpse r,f the topsails of a 
ship gliding ahmg the horizon, ImU usually the ocean 
seemed t" have no other t^niant than our own stout 
brig. <^ne afternoon the cook rushed out of liis den 
with the shout 'There she spouts!' and looking where 
he pointed we saw a whale cleaving the waves. We 
v/ere in our third week out when we ran into a fog. 
The wind fell and the brig rolled in the swell, caus- 
ing her tackle to rattle and sails to flap as if they 
would split. The second day the fog was thicker, 
and the ocean smooth as glass. For fear of collision 
with another ship, the lookout man kept blowing a 
horn which had a most dismal sound. The captain 
and mate tried to get the sun at noon but could not 
6nd the faintest trace. After dinner a gull flew past, 
which made the cook say he smelt danger. A few 
were below but the most of us were on deck when 
a slight bump was felt and tlieu another. The rat- 

iitmhm St>ll:ir 


tlin^ in tin- ripgin;; stopped and tlie ocean swell 
broke on cur stern. The mate started to the com- 
panion scuttle and sliouted to tile captain, that the 
ship was grouniled. In a minute lie appeared, his 
face white and twi-ted with anguish. His anxiety 
was not alone for the passengers and crew hut for 
himself. He was owner of the brig and it she was 
wrecked he was ruine<l. The mate was casting the 
lead and wlitn he shouted 'We are on a sandbank 
there wus a sigh of relief deepened by the carpen- 
ter's report that the ship was nut making water. 
Grannie, wlio had managed to creep up the ladder 
from the deserted hold, remarked 'We are .sooner in 
Canailii than I expectit.' Her exclamation brought 
the reliction from our dread and we burst into laugh- 
ter. 'It is not t^uebee,' slmuteii Allan in her ear, 
'we arc aground.' 'A weel,' she replieil, 'I will cling 
to the rock o' my salvation.' 

The order was given to get ready the boats There 
were two, the yawl that had b ,.n hauled on to\ of 
the house (in deck, and lay keel up. Oars were mis- 
laid and on hanging her to the davits it was noticed 
in time tliere was no plug in the hole for drainage. 
The other boat, which was nur reliance, whs the long 
boat abaft the foremast. Its cover was turn oH' and 
we saw it was tilled with all sorts of odds and end.i 
that liad been stowed there to le out of the way. 
These were pitchcil aside by willing hinds and the 
tackle had been fastened to lioist her overboard, 
when tliere was a shout from the fog of Ahoy. We 
saw a man in yellow oil skins rowing towards us. 


Tlifi \tirriitivp uf 

Juliipiiij; on Liiard, he a^kiil Wlmt is ki'i'pilif,' you 
here?' 'You tell us,' replied the captain, wfio wiw 
oveijoyed to see him. The lislieriimn said we had 
been drifted by the current towards Newfoundland, 
and had the sliip not ..'round -d she would in a few 
hours, have lecn I'lished aiiailist the cliffs that line 
the si ore and e\ery soul heen lost. It was tile most 
wonderful e-cape he had ever known. 

How are we to fjet off ?' a-ke<l the captain. 'You 
will Hoat oir when the tiile makes.' 'And then what 
will we do if there is no wind?' 'You will ^o uu the 
cliffs, hut there will lie a capful of wind at ehh tide.' 
The captain had wnt for his chart, ami the tisheruian 
pointed out where the hri},' stood. He said if a hreeze 
did not come in timi' for lier to maki- a slant south- 
wards we WvVf to lake to the hoals and row t(J the 
co\e which lie covered with his thuuTn. 'If you can 
j^et your anchor over the side, it may help you,' ho 

H and hi- eoiin-ad.'S were out eatehini; halt. He 
heard our horn and then saw our Inmp of a hrij» 
loom throu^jh the foj;. We w, rr sorry to see him 
leave ami row otV to his sele»iner, of which he had 
the hearinip. To hoist the anchor from where it 
had heen stowed when we lo-t si^ht of Tory island 
and hitt it to the chain wa- tedious work hut it was 
he^.'un. We waited hopefully for the tide and, sure 
enoujih, it iifte.i us jjently. On feeling we were 
aHoat c)nce more we gave a cheer. Soon after a faint 
lireath of air was felt, the ship got way. and 
we slowly hauled off the dr.'adi^d coast. The hre.zc 

(iDrfion Sellar 


ck'fiifd the i'cp nml in tlio mys (jf tlic settinjif sun 
we !-aw the clitfH against wliicli we mieht hare Iteen 
shivere^I anrl the tisliiii<;-huuts to whieii our frieml 

On giitheiiio' in tlie hold our talk was of our 
e.scHjje. The master saiil it was proof to him God 
was with us; we thoup;lit v:v. were lost when we 
gruuniUd, yet tlmt sandhiin.? was wluit liad saved us. 
Ju.»t tlien Mr Snellgrove came down the ladder. I 
ha^e just bade tlie captain good night,' he said, "and 
I am authorized by Idni to inforni ynn all danger is 
past. Had an executive coniniittee been appointfd 
tile nil n^ent the vessel struck matters would have 
have gone on with les> confusion. We are 5;afe, how- 
ever, notwitlistunding we have a Jonah on lioard. 

Mr Kerr who wti';, like all of us, excited by the 
accident, asked, 'You mean me?' 

Yes, you are a fugitive from the justice which 
W(uld have punish* (1 you as jxai deserve for sedition. 
The worlil htis come to a strange pass wdien tailors 
w<ukl dictate to the Powers (.rdainetl by God liow 
tht Ho!m is to be go\erncd. For one I am loyal to 
my King and }iis ail\isers in all they ordain. Eng- 
land's gioriou.s bulwark is her throne and the nobil- 
ity who surround it.' 

The little man stood on the lower rung-< of the 
ladder, in front of the lantern that swung from a 
beam, so I saw him clearly. To our surprise Mr 
Kerr came forward and spoke slowly and quietly. 
'I do not wish you, my fellow passengers, to lo(tk upon 
me any longer as a fugitive from justice, and will 


The Narrative of 

explain how it cuima that cireuinsUnces ^iv* ciilor 
to the charge. I haM- a hrother, ohlei tlian myself 
»n.l father of a lur(jo faiuily. One clav in April a 
clerk in the shcrilTs office, who is a cousin, came to 
me at niglit to tell me that a spy who had attende.l 
a meeting of the Liheral cluh, had laid an informa- 
tion that my brother had .spoken disrespectfully of 
the Kin;;. Uoorge the Fourth, an.l his a.lvisers. ( )„ 
the strength of this, a warrant was prepared f,.r his 
arrest on the charge of sedition. The .spy h.i.l made 
a mistake in the first name an.l had given riiine in- 
stead of my > rothers. My cousin said, if I would 
disappear the prosecution would he hatflud. To save 
my brother, for a prosecution would ruin him, I He,l at 
once, going to Troon, where I knew a ship was ready 
to sail for Canada. On the officers going to my 
lodging to arrest me, they found I had gone. How 
they came to know I l,„d gone to Troon I cannot 
say. Probably they sent word to all ports where 
ships were ready to sail. As you know, I was ar- 
rested on board this boat and discharged, because the 
magistrate had no authority to hold me. It was to 
save my brother that I am here. What he sai.l at 
the club I do not know, for I was not there.' 

■A plausible story,' said Mr .Siiellgrove, 'but you 
told a lie when you answered to a false n.ime before 
the Troon magistrate,' 

'I tol<l no lie.' answered Mr K.Tr in a calm voice, 
■for I was not asked to plead, but I knew I could 
liave saved myself and have sent my brother to jail 
by correcting the mistake of the spy.' 

fiordun Sflljir, 

Mr Snellgrove was about to say mure wlien a mur- 
mur of disapproval caused Ijim to slink to his liertli. 
My master came forward anil taking' y.r Kerr l.y the 
hand said. 'I respected you hefore; I you now,' 
anil all, men and women, pressed to shake his hand. 
After breakfml next nmrning there was much talk 
over our escape from death, and the more light 
thnmn on it in discussion the stronger grew thi; 
feeling that we had been saved by the interposition 
of Providence. Had the brig n.>t struck the .sand- 
bank iinil done so at low tide, not a soul would 
have readied bind, and relatives would never have 
known wliat became of the Heatherbell unless part 
of her wreckage was picked up. There ought to be 
public ackn(]wledgrnent of our rescue and expression 
of our united thank.s. The captain agreed it woul.l 
be right, so, that afternoon, all hands as.sembled, ex- 
cept Mr Snellgrove, who sat at the bow preteniling 
to read a book. The impression on me, by the 
eight of the sailors joining in the psalms and the 
children gathering roun.l their mothers' skirts in 
woniler, has survived these Hfty-tive years. The 
master at the request of the captain, took charge. 
He read the story of Paul's shipwreck and then 
prayed with a fervor that made me cry. To the sur- 
prise of all, he asked Mr Kerr to improve the occa- 
sion. He began by saying it was not tor mortals to 
judge the ways of God, to complain of visitations or 
to condemn acts that are inscrutable, but it was the 
bounden duty of man, when good did befall liim, to 
ascribe the praise to God. They had a marvellou. 





Tit*' Siirrntivp of 

cscniu- fruin ii cruul ilontli, iinil witlumt iri(|iiirinj,' iluo 
the li„w or wlieret\,i-e it was „ur part to iicknowlL-ili(„ 
the Imiiil tliat sivvi'il us, AftiT a j,'oocl ilral uioru In 
that strain of thought lu- chan«f.l to the purpose of 
our voya-e. We were crossing thi. ocean to escape 
con.litions in tlie ()],! Lan.l that ha.l heeoine a harden 
to us, hopiuf;, in the New Lan.l hef.a-e us. there would 
he liri^liter surroun.lin^'s. T,, pnvsei've tliat New 
Lnn.l from the n.istul«es ami evils tlwit hiast tlie 01,1 
was a ilnty. To try an.l repro.hice another .Scotlan.l 
such as they \m\ left wouhl he to reproduce what 
wc wore leavins; it f. r. \Vh,it we ounht to try 
is to create a new Great Bi-itain in, retaiii- 
inftall timt is ^-oo,i an.l ilroppin;; all that is un.lo- 
sirahle. I want, he sai.l. to see a lan.l wli.'re every 
man is free to secure a pcjrtion of Ooil's footstool ami 
to enjoy the fi-uits he reaps from it, without an aris- 
t<icracy takir.- toll of what they ,li,l not earn, and 
a government lexyinp; taxes on lahor to support sol- 
diers .ir to suhsidizo privileged classes of any kind 
W'hatever their pretences. 

How much more the speaker would Inne said I 
d.i not know, for Mr Snellgrov,., who ha,l conie for- 
ward on his heginning to speak, here shouted 'Trea- 
son" The master to prevent a scene, for a young 
shepherd move.l to catch hold of tlie offender, gave 
out the 100th psalm, and we closed in peace. 

'I'he hold was so dark that l!r Kerr ci-.ild not see 
to sew, so on fine .lays he worked on deck. .Sitting 
bcsi.le him he taught me how to hold a needle, (or 
he .said every man slujuld iw ahle to make small re- 

itorilon Sfllar 

pairs. Hi- Mcivisi.,] u, siiz,. eury opportunity to 

learn. Wlun n boy ht- coulil lin\u JMirnpil to .speak 
Gaelic and rcjfntleil lie had let the chance t;o l.y. 
SlKriilil he get work in Montreal, lie woiil.l stmiy 
French. A nian'.s intellect ijrows hy Icarninj; what- 
ever Hceiileiit throws in his way, ami the man « ho, 
from conceit, refuses to take ailvantap- of his 
opportunities Kea.l ami ohserve, he 
paid, and you will he ahle to say and do when your 
fellows arc heliiles.--. He ^jot cuttings of canvas fnaii 
the hosun, shaped ihcni into a Mou.-e, and ;,'ot me to 
sew them together. The other hoys hiu;,'lied at mc, 
and called me the wee tailor, hut the Mouse did me 
good service for many a dey. While -o much with 
him. I asked Mr Kerr ahout his politi-al tronl.le. 
Thoiif;li a Liheral he helonged to no eluh and was 
against n.-ing other than constitutional means to 
bring ahout reforms, ami these reforms must conic. 
It couhl not continue that tJrcat Britain was to ho 
ruled hy a parliament composed of aristoci-ats and 
their creatures, for the great mass of the people had 
no voice in it. Xo,, or other dis- 
fcnter was allowed a seat in parliament, and there 
were ni.hlernen who controlled the election of more 
nieniheis than the city of (ilusgow. Manchester and 
Birmingham have no memhers. Half of Scotland is 
owned hy a dozen aristocrats. Whenever you hear 
men shout disloyalty and claim to he the only true- 
blue supporters of their country, you may he sure 
they are .selfishly trying to hold some privilege to 
which they have no right. He told of many of his 


i 1 

The Xttrrn . 

i«:i|imiiiUiicus who liwl lifen pro: ciited for pi'titioii. 
iriK for the iniMiiliiiK of [loliticHl ({rii'Minws, of » few 
wlio hnil hceii ruiiii'il hy iiiipriioniniMit ami l»w co»t<, 
of the iiiuii who hwl hriii lijitiishni to AiistriUia, ami 
the thri'c men who hiul hn'ii hull),'.'.!. Hurulreilx ha<l 
Hfil, liki! hinisi'lf lo i'!iaipF prosecution. 

After our mi>.iaveiitiir«oirNewfoiiii.lUii,i,mr voy- 
age Wtt« prospiToiH. (;oriiin>f on .leek one sunny 
morning we saw laml, wliich was Cape Kay. arnl he- 
fore the sun set we were in the (iulf of St Ijiwrenee, 
We were not alone now, for e\ery few liours we 
Bij;hte.l sliip.s. They were piirt of tlie Spring' Heet to 
Vueliec, now on their voyajfe home witll earijoes of 
tiint«r. Ont pa.ssecl us so clo-e that the captains 
spoke, and when the hoinewanl capti. -i shonte.l he 
was for the Clyile tliere were}.iTs who wisheil 
they Were on boar.l her, and tlie tear came to their 
eyes when they thought of Scotland and of those 
who were there. The Bird Rocks wi^re iplite a sii;ht 
to ua, hut the Ayrshire folk held they were not to 
he compared with Ailsa Craij; Ojl the (lulf narrow- 
in;; until we coulil see land on b' sides, a white 
yacht hore down to us and sent ahoard a pilot. He 
was a short man. with ^rizzleil hair. l!ein>; the 
first Frenchman we had .seen, we ^'atliered round 
him with curiosity and listened to his hrokcn Kng- 
lish with pleasure, for the tone was kindly ami lie 
was se polite, even lo us hoys. He hrou;,dit no very 
late news, for he had left Quebec ten ilays before, 
when the weather was so hot that laborers loading 
ships dropped in the coves from sunstroke. Each 

liiirihm Si'Ititr 


lack tliat l.r(iut;)it, t\w \,ng \,\f\wt up thn river 
cliBii;,'.'.! thi' sffiiiTy a rnii^'i' rjf Ion st-rlnil tri'i'.4 nn 
the nc.rth liank, itriil on tljc simtli Kuiik a row of 
whiliwiislii'il cottUKcs. so closuly scl tliat tlu^y lookfil 
as if tlicy lini'd a ntnul, l.rokm at intiTviils l,y tlio 
tin-foviTiil roof ami sticple of a church. There wore 
(iisnissioiis aTiion;^ our faniHTt as to the imrrowiiesa 
of the tie]. Is and what kind (.f crops were on them, 
for they lookc^il patchy and with of .litferent, 
which the pilot was penendly called on to decide, 
anil it WHS funny to watch his difKciilty in under- 
standing' their hroad Scottish speeeli. Reaching 
where the ehli ti^le was stronger than the lireizi, 
anchor was dropped for the first time. Before the 
tide turned, the pilot cried to dip up water, and 
there was a shout of ileli^jht wlien we tasted it and 
fcaind the Imckets were lille.l with fresh wat«r. 
Wasn't tliero a dig washiiip; that day: i .iiucli 
splashing as the p..rpoises made who ;;anihollc»l at a 
<listance. Cool, northerly hreezes heipi d us on our 
way, and exactly Kvc weeks from tie- day we Ic-ft 
Troon we cairie to anchor otf Cape Diim.ond, which 
di.sappointe.l us, for we looked for a hif;her rock and 
ft hifjger fort. Un the .ship mooring, the |)ilot sat 
down, and in a frenzy of delight at his .success in 
bringing her up safely, flourished his arms and 
chuckled in his own language. Darling from a 
wharf caine a tine rowboal with four oarsmen, and 
an official in blue with gilt button.s holding the helm. 
We were so engrossed in watching it, that we did not 
notice Mr Snellgrove had joined us, decked out grand* 

Ttif .Wirrnth'f ttf 

\y in Hii.'»t cl(ithi'« H«fi)re tlin miituin M >,\y * 

W(pnl ti> the eiKt'irin-iifficT, Mr Sni^lltfMvi' nskwl liim 
whi'tluT till' ;,'iiVfrnnr-(,'ciu'r«l wui rit hi" ri'si'lciice, 
aii'l cm li.'iiiK '"I'' '"' »"■'. »"i'l 1»! Kucild necoinpiiny 
iiii iimji'^ty'H tilHciiil "n sliuri', mi.l, -o miyiii;; Htipfn'il 
on th.' l"»it iin'l siiitf.l liiuiscli' in siliiit (li){iiity in 
thi* xicrn, turning hi" hucli to us wtm wt-re lookin^j 
on. Till' otiici t'm visit «•»■< hricf; tin' Iniat nff 
and we hwl uur lust louk uf Mr SniOlni'Mvc, tr»n»- 
fonnt'tl I'rnin a st.'frii;it'-|)rt-(^fii^i-r intn h (hin-ly ex- 
prc'tilit' to Mii\ with thi' sinin.ic-i's ill' t^ui'iiiT. Si!\i 
liny, in tulkin;; with tin- ciiptMiii, li.- lol.l tli.' timstiT 
Sncllnrcnf liiiil kept 11 .Iriipiir's simp ,it Mayhole, 

failisl for 11 lii;; sum. nii<l li>i<l i u- to ('iininln <\- 

pfctihi; to uct, with tlif luttrrs of introiliii'tiou lie 

hml from i\ nuiiiluT of nolilr ri. n ;;.ni.rnrni'nt sitil- 


Tht! inti'iition Irt'in^j o, wt-iuli miclior on tin' tiile 
flowing, li'iivi- to jjo on sliori.' was i-cfusi-.i to the piis- 
.si'MgiTs. The cuptiiin, Imvinj; to report iit the cus- 
toms, he. however, to„k .Mr K"rr with him, to get 
mutiTiiils for repuirs he wns mnkoiL; to the ctiprain'a 
cloihes. Mr Kerr ciiui;ht liiilil of me, imil I Inula 
hurrieil look at what uppeareil to me to he a foreign 
tjwn, leavin},' out the .stieet that run along the har- 
bor, which .seemeil to he lineil with taverns frtM|uent- 
eij by soldiers and sailors. Mr Kerr bought a fancy 
basket from a sijuaw, as a present to the mi.stres.s, 
who had been kind to him. While «e were gone, 
the ship was visited by bouts oflering bread for Bale, 
and willing to take in exchange split peas or oat- 

aninu Sethi I 

eni-»l Hl.ick lillniis wiTi' Ijl'M up «» nmplr siy^r. 
Tlii-y wore «ij ilirty tlmt ruricvuity was siidii iiili.H.Ml. 
Ttif lioat llml hrmi;{lit us u pllct. wpiil t-»ck willi 
SnfUltP.v.s, trunk On l\w ti(|.> lpoginnln^ to tluvr 
tlii- ancliDr was lifUsl «nil wf w.tu Imrru- upwar.ln, 
luwsinK till' crc/w.l asliun'. am.ini; whnni wiTu many 
«"liliiT«, A ({un wai Hro.l fn.i,, ihc cita.l.'I nri.l tlin 
llii;,' Hilttcreil ■lowii, fur it was sunsrt wliiMi »,■ :;.jt 
inlii Ihi' strniin. Kvirytljin;; Uwi^ new and •tniriKc 
niitliiiii; us, anil pvi'i-y passiiijicr wa. in .l.ik 
wuti'hint;. Till- nuinhir lit' siiips surpii.r.l nil. Thi-iB 
wvTv rnws of tlii'ni for two or thnu- niili's. in tl* 
niiilst uf Kflils uf tliu lo;rs whii-li w.To to f.-nu thi-ir 
car(ro,-.s. As I -lit lifsiile Mr KiTr in tlii> t«ilii;lvt. 
Ill' spi kr of ihf sijrhts I couM not lii-ip sftinp in tlii; 
ktri'i-t aloii); tlie wati-rfront of ViuIht, or luinrini; tlic 
liiiitiunu'f UBi'il. ThiTf was evil in the worl.l of wliieh 
a niun shoulil trj t.. k,.,.p ijrnorani. It wiis not 
knowliilyi- of till' woM.I to look into, much Ics.h 
to ilalil,!<- in it.s tilth. A lad who kfpt hi.s thou;;hts 
cliKii WHS rt-paiil l.y hc.ilth and liappimss, hIiIIc en- 
ti-rtiiininj; ivil iiiiii^>inings !..,! to a w™k iutulli'ct aril 
ilisconti'ut with onrsilf. 1 had noticid ln-forf, when 
anylioily bi^gan a ilirty story that Mr Ki-rr rosi> ami 
left Another tinii! he toM nie, his constant tH'ort 
wan to think of only pleasant tliinga, to try ami re- 
lieve what was disaj;reoal.le hy looking from a sunny 
standpoint and to meet disappointments hy sinreh- 
inf; if there was not soiiie ^'ood in thi-ni. 

On the tide bej(innin); to turn, the anchor wa,!? 
dropped. The tide is felt as high as Three Rivera 




The Xiirrntivp of 

and it is possiVjle fur a ship to j;o that fur by Huat- 
ing up witli it. The second night after leaving 
Quebec we were startled by a loud knticking on the 
companion of t!ie forecastle and an imperative shou t 
To tumble up. An east wind had come and every 
minute was valuable. The anchor was lifted and 
sails set, and before tiie sun appeared we were sweep- 
inj,' past Three Rivers. Interest was kept up by the 
villages and tields we passed, and it was the decision 
of the farmers tliat it was poor land badly worke<l. 
More novel tt) us, wa.s the succession of rafts we met, 
each covering acres, with masts and houses on them, 
and men along tlieir sides ki'eping them in mid- 
stream I'y means of long oars. As we pas-sed up 
lake St Peter the wind fresliened, the clouds came 
lower and the rain poured. The captain and pilot 
were in great glee, for they tobl us if the wind held 
we would pass up the St Mary's ci rrent and anchor 
otf Montreal V>efore dark. Strong as the wind was 
and with every pail set that would draw, it was 
found we could not stem the current without help, 
so the ship was brought close to the bank, a rope 
pafsed ashore, and a string of oxen appeared, who 
helped to draw her into calmer water. The night 
was dark and rainy but we kept on deck and watch- 
ed the hghts of Montreal. 

They had not been at sea a week when the three 
farmers had agreed they would keep together on 
reaching Canada and take up land side by aide. 
They were also of one mind in making Toronto (it 
was not so named then) their starting-point in search 

fhtrihni Si' 

of new liijiiies. Tliu ciiptttin'-* ailvico was. that one 
c" thftii sh.mlil take the stajre iit .Montreiil; hy so 
doiiiu' lie Wdul.l net to Toronto ut len^t a w.'ek alieail 
of tlie rest of tlie party, in which time he conl.l hunt 
up land. This would save delay and the e.xpense of 
stayins,' in lodoinsr while lookinjr for a place to .settle. 
It was arranged the master should <,m>. At daylight 
he got ashore and was in time for th.' stage that left 
for I'rescott. We wei'e all up early that morning, 
eager t" m.(. Mnatreal. The clouds had g.)iie and the 
mountain louke.! fresh and green. The town con- 
sisted of a r.w (if huildings along the river. 
There heing mo wharf or ilock the ship was hauled 
as close to til.' -liore as her draft all.iwed, and a 
gangway of long planks on trestles set up. Nearly 
every passenger walkeil over it to say tli.y hail set 
foot on Canada. A nnnilier of the men went into 
the town to -leit. In two hours of them was 
hrought hack lirnnk and witliont a copper in his 
pockets. Mr Kerr told nie he would stuy in Mon- 
treal if he gut a place. He returned in the after- 
noon m I. II OS ].,. had got work and to takeaway 
his few i.i.aiging.s. He hade all g,,oil-liye On 

■•'""'".i,' ' e, I went with him. f..r he had asked 

the mistri-s I g.. with him to see the town. 
The nan-owness of the streets and the foreign look 
of the houses with their high-pitched root's impress- 
ed me less than the muddy i-oadways, for I had 
never thought there could he a town with unpaved 
streets and no sidewalks. Mr Kerr, on his way to 
his Iwarding-huuse, showeil me the shop where he 






Till* XaiT.-itivf' nf 

was t(i ln'^nii work next morniii<^. Wliile we were 
in liis hfdrooin a f^nnir stmrnkMl for supper. It was 
all new tu me, tlie people, tlieir talk, imil tlie tooil. 
I wotiilered to see ineiit and potatoes for supper, liot 
I'Ulis, jmd apple-pies. After supper we had a walk, 
and in 'ioin^' aloni; one of tlie streets V eic was a 
man before us earryinj^ a iiaUy. liaising; lier liead 
aliove Ids slioidder the child h>oked at us and .said 
soi:.etldnj; to him. Without reHelttini,', I wondered 
how a eluld could liave learned Ki-etich so early in 
life. On liirnin;; hack to the ship Mr Kerr look me 
into a shop iiTiil houirlit me a cap, anil I liad med of 
one. Oneoiiiin;; in front of the ship, he shosik my 
handsaw if he diil not wani, l.i let nje ^^o. and made 
me prnmis,, I would write him aTid tell whei-t.^ we 
had settled. For himself, he wiaild stay ill Montreal 
at least loni; enougii to eet his helon<;inj;s hy ship 
from (Jreenock. 

The captain liavinj; given notice that everyhoily 
must leave the ship next day, there was earl}' bust- 
lini; in linishing packinj; and arranfjinj; for the next 
.staf;e in our journey, whicli was to ho hy a Durham 
boat to Prescott. Carts were on hand to haul our 
lusfjage to the canal, where lay tie- boat that liad 
been hired for our party. A carter hoisted a chest 
on his little vehicle ami hurriedly drove off. Instead 
ot taking the direction of the other carts, he went 
straight up the dump that led into the town. I 
shoutcil to him to stop He laiil his whip on the 
liorse an.l drove foster. It flashed on me he was a 
thief, and I ran after him. I couhl never have 

(''inluri >.//,■//■ 

caught up tn him had it not hcon imii-ket .lay ,m.l 
ttie stri^ct wa^^ cnnvclcl with ]i,oph. ,inil carts. I 

jnmpiMl lip hosiile him and pu I at his collar to 

inak.- him stop Hi- trici -o p„sh „,e „„ to the roa,l, 
but I clun^' to him, when h<' laslic.l mc witli the 
whip I shouted for !„.lp. hut all heins French Ihey 

did not kmm-wliat I said, hut they saw s etldng 

was wroni; ami with many exclamatirais th.> crowd 
stood starin- „t us. ,Iust then a little, stoul leiui, 
in a hlack -own, ell owed Ids «„y thron-l, the crowd, 
and asl,,.d m<! in Kn.;lisli what was the matt, . I 
told him the cart.T ha,l .stolen the tie s, „ke 
to the carter i i K, rcli. 'Tlie man ,!eiiies it.' .s„i,| 
the pnVsi, lor such I now .;,iesM-d he was 1 l,nr- 
riedly narrated what ha, I h„p,„„,.,|. ,„„| f.,y ,,,,.,.f 
point,,! to the ram,. ,,ainl,.,l o„ ti:e ch,..t. S,,.;,k- 
ins with .severity to the cart,f, the felh.w tii,ne,l 
hish, towards th,. river an,| M,,. priest tol.l me 
he wcaild take the cla-st hack to where he ;:ot it 
'But he may not ,|o so,' I exclaiiucl. The p list 
gave me a sharp look, as if .surprised that 1 .shouhl 
he i-norant of ids power 'He ,lare not ili.sohey me ' 
I thanke.l th,. pri,.st from the of „,y heart, 
an,l in a f.'W minutes the cart,T luul .lumped the 
chest on the spot where he ha.l taken it and drove 
away On telling' the mate what had happene.l, he 
sai,l it was comiiaai for emiKrants. hoth at Quel,ec 
and Montreal, to be rohbetl hy fellows who re-arded 
them lus fair L'ame. 

We followe,! the cart that took tlie last of our 
lusgage, forming ,,uite. a procession, an,l each one of 




'I'lir .\:>:r;i1ivH af 

US wlin wa-; aMi- ciirrii'ii something. I \\:\i\ n huj; in 
one luuiil tiiiil an iron pot in tlu- <itiit')'. (ininnie 
lidil II tirni ^jrip of Koblii*'. wlio ■A\<t iVurcil mitjht 
1m> lost in Montreal, fur ttie pair liuMii- limlnii a «. ml 
of Kivncli. On coining tn the cunal wd were m. ap- 
pointe-l with both it an-l the The canal wa. a 
narrow tlitch ami as to tlie lioat, it was short and 
narrow and had no deck, except a few feet at either 
* ' *\\V cannot live in tliat cockle-shell!' exclaini- 
ed Mrs Anld. Her owner replied 'Slie was one line 
hunt. '.lew. hnilt iiy Yankee.' He was the only one 
of the crew who undorstdcd Kn^lish, and was tpiick 
in Ills nintiiiiis. He soon had all we iinmc^lit with us 
stowed, and when a eonier was found for th{; last 
che.-t. it was a surmise wluie the crew and passen- 
gers C'uld Hnd >tan'li[i;n-r«K)ni. The decked portions 
were allotted the women and cliiMren, t; e men and 
hoys roosted on tup "'i hnxes and t-ales as tliey ecadd. 
Wh.-n all was ready, llie eiaiduetor t.K>k the helm, 
the crew line.l up on tli-- I'^uik with a towdlne over 
their >iinnlders, an<i mi' we startei!. The weather 
was tine and the country we passed lieautiful. At 
the first lucks we came to, the mistress stepi)ed to a 
fannhouse beside the canal, and came l»ack with the 
pail she had taken with her full of milk. It was the 
first the children ha«l since we left Scotland. It was 
late in the day when the boat got to the end of the 
canal; the eoiiductt)r, wlio told us to call him Treffle, 
«aid we would wait and have supper before going on 
the lake. Driftwood was ijathered and tires made, 
pots and pans being set on stones. The crew fried 

(lorthin Sclliiv 

I'lit pork, whitli, witli l.reml, was tlii-ir suppor. We 
iiiailf purnil!.'!', hw \\k Iiu I still a H"iiiI >^npply of .lat- 
111. Ill, iin.l i.l' ship-liisciiit. The sails wvw hni^ttil 
and «■(■ K'li; 'i«'iiy licfon- it v u- ipiiiL. ,l„rk. Tlir wiml 
was westerly, s( I «•(■ liiul to tick. Hu.l it not l.e.ii 
that tile l.oat had a peiitrrlioan! we woiiM I'Mve ina-te 
small proL'ress. The centrehoanl W:is a l ..y to us, 

anil weouuM ^c.,■ li.ivv clo*e it the .iith ve.s.d 
to sail in the eye of the wiml. The siz,. of t!ie hike 
surprised everyl.ody and all the mure when Tr. tfle 
told ns it wa- the St Lawrenee. '.My, it is a i.i^ ri\er 
and it is in a l.i^- country;' e.\claiiiied .Mrs .\uld. 
Kveryhoily had to ,-leep a« they could: -oliie 
slept sitting', more by leanine against one allot: r. no- 
Vpody had room to stretcli himself. We were find 
and j;lad to rest in any way. Mrs Anhi saiil we w. re 
like herring' in a harrel, parked head- ami thraws. 
Ill wakiiii; at daylight we heard the souiel of water 
dashiiie' aiid roarin^^ and loukini; up\\ard> -aw the 
rivei- tnmhliii!.' ilownward- in ^r.nt waves, wideli 
were, for all the world, like those of the Atlanti,- in 
a frale, e.xcept tliat they stayed in the same jilace. 
TretHe -nM the-e waves were due to the JU-! ini,r 
water strikini; hi;,' rocks in the heel of the riv. r. c \ er 
which they kept pourin,', an 1 i;'>^'e the nanieCa-- 
cades to the ra|>id. The hoat was tied up, a- the 
crew were to have breakfast before their hard «oi'k 
in makinij a pas-ai;,- past the rapids. I w. nt with 
the mistress to a iiou-e tliat wtus luit 'iar awav for 
milk. A sniilin,' woman met us at the door ami 
askid u- iii-ide; the hou«i> was ele;in and neat. We 




Tlir X.irriitivp of 

trieil to nmkc lier utnlfi-itunil wlmt wl' Wftiitcil Imt 
failt'il until I |)ut tlit' p:iil iR-twei'ii my km-c- ami 
iinitiitL'd inilkini; u cuw. She iaujjlied heartily imd 
hy -iLins iiiiuK' us know slio iliil not have a cow. 
tStrppini; to tlu- fireplace .she liippe'l a tin into a bi<^ 
pot that siniineivtl in a corner uiul liaiuled it to the 
mistress. It was soup. Holding <mt soTiie money, 
slie made sis^ns to till the ])ail Having done so she 
picked out Hve coppers from the money oH'ered, and 
bade fjood-l'V with many a smile and nod. The 
soup proved lo l.e tine, Just ono drawback, its flavor 
of j;;ar!ic. 'They w^v no split peas to make tiieir pea- 
soup hero,* remar-ked Mrs Auld, 'and it is an im- 
provetneiit.' 'Xo, no,' interjected Tretfle, 'S(mp be 
good because all time kept bi^iliiifj; pot by the fire 
Sunday to Sunday.' The chill in the morninj; air 
made the hot soup i^rateful. 

(itirilnn SpUar 




(Jur cariosity as to liow our boat was to {jot up thi; 
rapiJ was soon satisfied. Along liotli siiles of tlii' 
boat ran a stout plank, to wliicli were securely fan- 
teneJ a row of cleats about two feet apart. Tin; 
crew irathered at the bow, cacli man holding a long 
pole with an iron point. On the order being given 
by the con<luctor, who held the helm, two men 
stepped out and took their place on the planks, ono 
on each side, and dropped the iron points of their 
poles into the river, until they struck bottom. Thuu, 
pre.ssing the end they held against their shoulders, 
pushed with all tlieir might. As the boat yielded 
to their thrust, they stepped Imckward down their 
planks, making room for another man in front, until 
there were four on each side of the boat, pushing 
with their utmost strength. As the men who lirst 
got on the planks reached the end, they jumped a^ido 
and made their way to the bow to begin anew the 
same operation, of dropping their poles into the 
water, tucking the head of them into the hollow of 
their shoulders, and, leaning forward, push as they 

'tlip S;:itnti\f 

did befiiif, rtcedin(r sU-p by sU-p, tlic clfiits K'vinj,' 
thu needed purchiise tu their tVet. Tlie cmniit was 
swifter timn uny uiillstieiiin, yet the Ikuu, whs push- 
ed aliiwly up until we reiiolied the elitliiuee to a 
caiml, snmllei- tliiiii tliiit at Licliiue, I'l.r it was c.nly 
2J feet deep iirnl so iminiw that the erew jniiiped it 
when tliey wishid to cross. )t ser\ed tlie purpose, 
however, of ennhlini; the Ix.iit to puss the worst part 
of the rapid, wliere it foaineil in ijreat liillows. 
Quitting the canal (lie swift eurri nt wii- ai,'ai]i met 
and tile settin;; |ioles aj,'ain put into use. Our lads 
were cn^er to try their, hut a few nii.mtes 
was enough, their shoulders hdni; too soft for the 
work. Those of the crew were'd almost like 
bone, hut even to tliem it was har<l work, for the 
sweat ndled down their faces. ,is tliey .struL'iiled 
ttlont; the planks hent double. On ri'aebin!; the next 
rapid, Tretfle askeil all wlio could to },'et out and 
walk aloni,' the bank, as the boat was draw in;; toe; 
much water. Uobbie wanted tiv .;,, witli us, but 
grannie clunjr h< him. '.Sh.inhl the bi.atie cowp, who 
would save him gin I was na at h,\nd?' she asked. 
To help the crew, we pidlc-d at a towdine until she 
got to another small canal. As we went on, w<' had 
the excitement of watchiu^^ boiit- jniss us on tlii-ir 
way to Montreal, shooting the i-iipLls. The\- were 
heavily loaded, mostly with li.igs of llour. yet ran 
down tlie foannn;:: waters safel.e To us boys, wa.s 
more exciting the passage oF rait-, for they splashed 
the water into spray. Having overeome that raphi, 
we nil got on board, and the crew had an easier time 

flortlnn Sflhtr 

in pushing; alonj; until wu p.t in s\ghl i>f ii cliiirch 
puiclifil iil.uve a cliistiT i>f cottac,"-. Tlie nii-tri^s- 
n»lci«n'ri'rt1i' liijw they iniulf tlic |m»siij;e iK'I'nri' t\\f 
.sMmll ciiniils wiTu cut wIrtu tlie rapiils »i-n- nii>t 
il«nj,'cTou,«. H,- expliiinni, that at tlif Ki>t rii|ii<l nil 
the t'rcijtht was) unlcmilud .irnl conveyed in carts to 
the lanclinjf-place on lake .St Francis, while the empty 
hoats were poled anil towed close alongside the ed;,'e 
of the bank, avoidin;; the hoilinj; water. In those 
days tire hoats were li^rhter iili.l sailed in eoinpanirs, 
and their crews united to take up one hy one. 
The villape, the (V'dars, was to he thj resting-place 
of the hoatnien until next day, and scattering- aniolij: 
the houses, where a few of them had their families, 
they left the hont to the pil.ssen;,'ei's. 'I'rertle led the 
way to houses where provisions could lie hounlit and 
at prices so hiw that the women wondered. Sayin;,' 
nothini; .so jjood to make men strouff. lie houirht for 
the mistress a l,i^r pii.ce of boiled pork, which, slice.l 
thin, we enjoyed eithel- with bread or oUl- ship- 
biscuit. We watched the baking of bread. It was 
tired in i|Ueer little white plastered ovens .set in front 
of each house, looking' somewhat like beehives plae cl 
on top of strong tables. The ovens are tille.l with 
wood, which is ,set on h're, and when tlie oven is le.t 
cnoucrh the wood is raked out, the loaves shoved in. 
and the door shut. We youngsters ftathered round 
one on seeing the woman was about to open it. 
When .she drew out the first loaf, with a tine crust 
and an appetising smell, we could nut help giviiig a 
cheer, it was so wonderful to us. We went back lo 


Tln> S-irr.itivfi nl 

llio Iwiit witll a li>t of fucjd, til whicli wus mlileil tisli, 
iKiilfflit fniMi II liimi IK he liimli'il friiiii \\\* ciinof, 
wliicli wi' Ihi'il. That ivi'llin!^' we ha'l thi' hist mnil 
since wu Ifft hiimo.imil iit iiiijht hml phnty ul' rnmn 
to sli!f|i, fur thi' nil- In-ill); liot ii iiuinlnl- of us slept 
liiMii'iith the tri'i-. We safuly ^'ot pnst tlie fourtli 
illlil hist of the, ttoiitiii); out of It little Cttllill 
into a hilKi' hike. The willil wus still in the west, 
so we Illlil to kie|i tucking', anil it wns aflernojii wlien 
we piisseil Cornwilll mill steereil for the south side of 
tlieiSt Lawrence. Allan was pointini; out toOnmnie 
what was British ami what was American: she re- 
inarkeil, on coinparin;» the houses on the two Imnks, 
'That jjin Canmlians wail liuilil house.- of wooil, they 
ocht to hae the ileccncy to paint them' On iiearinR 
the himlinK-place at the foot of the riipiils, Allan 
pointeil to a ^Toup of people ami tohl her they were 
Yankees. She shook her lieail, she iliil not helieve 
him, they were too like our ain folk to he Yankees. 
The Soo is the longest raphi of e St Lawrence 
incasurinij nine miles, hut is ni .learly so wihl as 
those we hail, having f v er waves ami in- 
tervals of smooth water. There wa.s no canal to 
help in getting to the lieail of it. ami it was heyond 
the strength of onr crew to push the hoat up with 
setting-poles. There was a tow path along the U. S. 
bank on which stood three yoke of oxen. A stout 
cable was liookeil to their whiffle-trce ami they start- 
ed. On getting fairly into the .strength of the current 
the crew dropped their poles into the water, and it 
was alt men and oxen, .strained to the utmost, eould 




"1" at lilui'- tip »t>iii till' Hwei'ii ut the Mli^'llty tiilp. 
It wns ^liiw wiiik liut »!• Willi tci MiMiniliir wiitiT 
ami till' Imiit up I'.ir tlif ninlit. It was Imt wlieii 
wi- ciitcrytl liiki' Si Ki-iiiK'i'i, it wii^ sultry imw. Alunjj- 
»\i\r us WHS u Diirliiuii I'otit liki- t.urs. l.ut luiij^er. It 
wiis |iiiiki',| wi rsi' tliHu iiur imii. ukmi. wniiu'ii, nnd 
cliiltlii'ii iiiiiltllfil lis cliisi' US eiiptivfs nil II sliivcship, 
ttihl liki' oursi'U'i's wi>ni nut with I'uti^ut' uiul fui'iiif; 
tlif thuiiilLTstdriii tliiit we Iii'ar'l comin;^ without 
cnvil-iiis; III' liny kiiul. The ijuii-t ili'ti-rminiitinn tii 

eiiiluiv iiiiii'h in tliu liflii'f that «!■ woiv c iiii,' to ii 

ci'iiiiliy wlii-ri' we wouM Ivi'ttiT mir ciiinlitiiii sus- 
tniiiucl nil in iliiiiic; iiur lust to llliiki' lii;lit of our 
triiils. To II yotiiii; woiimii. wlio WHS tryiiii; to j^-t 
a fri'tl'iil Imliy to sli'up. tlii' iiiistri'ss sint lui' with n 
tin of milk nml we liml soinn talk. I nskfil if sin- 
was not sorry slic liail left the Olil I..anil. 'No, no,' 
ulie npliml, 'Wf hull no prospect thuri'; here, with 
hiiril work we liiive the prospect of conifmt ami of 
depfiiilinj; on nolioily for work or help.' She kisseil 
her liiilie anil speiikinj; to hiiii siiiil. 'Yis, Willie, you 
will never know in this country what your mother 
Cttiiie throuf^h.' It wa.s this hope that sustained us 
all. There was only a small house in siglit and the 
near hush was scruli. so we did not ask to go on 
shsre and had to wait patiently, for the heat and 
mosquitoes kept us awake. The storm did not last 
Ionj{, hut wetted all to the skill w'.o could not creep 
aniler the decked parts of the IkiiU. It hroii<;ht i;reat 
relief in fresheninij the air. The lioatineii were astir 
before i!ayli:^ht, hoisting the sails, for the wind had 




'* 1 






turnc.l t.i till' ni>rHi, a< it often ilm « iiftir a thuritltr- 
storm. ThiTi' wiTi' |)liio>>!i, where tin' current run no 

Fo-st tlltlt Hrttin^'-pole^ llii<1 to l>e ll<t'ii. Iiut we ^ot on 

well, nnd, hy-iin.l-l.y. sijjhtiil two towns -()},nleiis- 

liiirK mill I'rtBeo tl iie liri;;lit nml thiy, the 

other with u wedtherlniiten uninviting look. We 
reini--; r-" see a Mniall steiimKout at the l*rescott 
wh.i.-i'. It was waitin^r f„j- the sta;,'e from Montleal. 
A lMir'.;ain was ma«le to take our party to Klii;rKton. 
On the lioat we hail met at the .Son comin;; in, she 
hail too many eniiijriints fur the steamer to take on 
iMiaril, hilt her captain agreeil to tow her The oH'er 
was iiiaile to let any of the women clmn^e lioats, i.ut 
none lueepteil. Like ourselves, they were travellini,' 
in families alel feiireil to he parteil. We were real 
sorry in hiihiinir yoo.M.y to the crew of the D'.irliaMi 
IsMit, for they hail lieeii kiml iiml iiiaile eon.panions 
of the ehililren. As \nc tot came up ti her 
special favorite, she pursed her lips to he ki— ■.!; 
the Cuiiiuliaii took the pipe oiii of his iniftitii anil 
nave the i|Ueeivst cry of ihli'.'ht 1 ever heani. We 
couhl nut speak to each other, l.llt in the hili^-u i-r uf 
1,'riniace anil expression of eunntenunei' the Kreiich 
• lanailian ixcels. 'rii,' Muntnal -tiv^r at ln^t ..p- 
pear.'il. ilrawn Ky fuur horses, and uii its pa-Mn;.fi-rs 
^cttiilj; settled in the c.ihin. the steamer be^'iin her 
voyaj^e. She was not like th-' steamhoats of hitiT 
days, which are houses huilt on hulls .She wa.s 
just a ^ool-sizeil har^^'e with an en;xlne and two 
paiMle-wlieels, which sent her alonij at a slow rate. 
all the more slowly on account uf her towiuyf the 

flniihm .V''//,/r 


Diirluirii iiuiU Our purty rrnw*' • ' hrv f n- 'l-M-k 
iiri'i ntir l'«;fl{iij{.', pili'il i>n tlif Ir ., i ^c lni<I wli. n 
Wf ^iit on, Wli* liiyluT tli-m hi-r |mi(.!lr-l..ixt ?. W.- 
!*t'»p|ii-.i tlin*!' tiiue-i t»i tiiky on woi».l .luriii;; llir \>n^- 
Mitft', ifiu'liini; Kinirston next nioniiiii;. wlicrc wi* 
Wert- to '^vi n -tftirncr for Toronto, l.ut Iih<I to wnit 
for hiT urri\iil. Sin- wii-t h lur^fr liout Kut of tl;i' 
sntuv imttiTh hi tlie oni- we l-'l't, Imviiii; lnr ciiMii- 
(ii'low ilic'k. 'I'li'tv wtTi' Dvrr II luiiiilrr'! fnti;.;nuit- , 
and w'v 'o pro\v<lfi| the *tii'r»;{*' tliut wt- \vi ri- [nii'krtl 
rt^ c]n-<t' n* in tin* Diirhttiii I'oats. Tin' i>ro^[>i-et ol' 
\'f'\u'^ "<< lu-ar oiir jotiriii-y's vx\>\ umtlv iw rtiour'- ilis- 
ccnifort cliffrfully 1 n-iiu'iiiU'r liow tl'.' i,nrat .^izf 
(tf lukt- Onturio hntirt's-irit us alt. Iiuviiiu i\u Imri/nn 
like tlint <.f thr Atliiiitif. \\V w-ri-i' n .! ,it tit.- 
wiiltli *>i tlic St Lawrrnc' iin^i at wli.r.- .til tli.- 
wiit'-r i-.tini' from T' ihi^\\ .lowii its nipi'l-, l.iit tlii- 
Jill Mt jjik'- -iifjiii-i'ii 11-- iiiMi-,-, with it> -ni-'.MilJs iiti'l 
lii- wliitr [.aiiit-.l ~I,i[w iH.wlinu' filonir. M,- AuM 
niiiruki-il tilt' L'.'Uiity '•\ Ayr woulil K.- luit :iii i>kin'l 
in it. (inil Mr Broilif tlmt y.>u Miio;lit >tick (iliispiw 
in II cofiHT antl iu'V^t know it was tlu-re wtvc it not 
for tilt' rt-ek. Many won- tlie sumiix's us to how thr 
mHstt'r litid j^ot on, if he IdkI got Iiiml, if he wouM 
niei't n>. ami what our iitxt move woiiM i»e, The 
nii)!itrf>' sliurt'il in none of their anxiety. She was 
calm in her confidence of her hushami's iihility and 
ener;;y. She was convinced he had secured land 
and that he would 1h? waiting on the wliarf when 
th(r steamer sailed into Toronto. Tliey were what 
every murrieii couple ought to he — of one mind and 



'I lir \;irrntivi' 

one lifiirt. Onr first si^'ht of Torciito pli'ii»c>(l iw nil, 
iin'l we Jnul n lori!^ view of it, -^ailin^ roMii'l the isl.uni 
liefore iviieliini,' the entrance to tli^- Lailior. Onr eves 
were <tr;iine'l as we ciime ni'*r the wharf iTi tlii' licipe 
of picking' out niKter iinion;; the people who crowil- 
C'l it. All of 11 su.hli'n Uoliliie shouted Kuther, anil 
a niiiu waved his lian-l. wlmni, as the bo:it ilrew cIo^.t 
in we all reco;;niii'il. The sailors were still hanlno' 
the steamer into her iierth. when Mr Hrodie shouted 
•Have you jjot limd?' Ve-, was the reply. Tlwrnk 
God:' ejaeulated Mr Uro.lie. and wc all said the same 
in our hearts; the relief wi- f.dt oldy enii^-rants, alter 
a weary ioi.rney to a stranue eunntiy can know, 
I'ressin;; ]-onnd the iriaster, with Knth in liis ariris 
and Uoliliie pulling' at his eoat tails he said he had 
■.'ot land, not far from Toronto, and had s( cured carts 
t.) move us that day to take possession. First of all, 
he said, we will have dinner. 

Ihinltm St' 

Heru I stiippi'il. It WHS my ynim^'i-t ilmiulitrr 
who in<istoil uii my tilliii-^' How I Cnmr t" Ciiniula. 
anil I linil cnnsi-ntfi i mi coiuiitiori sli.' wciiM write 
diiwii wliiu I siiid. I'lM- I luii a puiir pciii.iun ami nii 
spi'lliT. Ri'i'alliii^' wliut liail hiippi'incl ill my early 
lite, ami I ili<l so irenirally as I lay in l-iil in my 
wakeful hours, I dictated to Mary as slio found 
leisure. On riwlin;; over what sh.' I. ad writt.ri I 
had only one fault to Hnd with her work — >lie had 
nut taken down the Soctch as I had spoken it. Sh,. 
had put iiiy wiads, .sii she said, into pn.p.r Kn^di-1 
She protested .ii,'ainst my halting' in my narrative 
with the arrival at Toronto, and iiisi-te.i I m, on 
and tell of our life in the J cannot re- 
sist her pretty way of pleadin;,' With lie- when she 
wants anytliin;;, f..r she is so like my sninied mother 

that I often start at the n-semhlaiiee. T e, in 

youii^' face and li;,'urc my mother lives a!.'.iin. The 
agreement was to tell Hc^w I (.'aiiie to (.'anada. To 
that I now add. How we tiot On in its l!aek«..ods. 


V'.'.f .V,i/T.-(f/r.' ot 

(ionlnn Stellar 


Chaiter V. 


Leaviiij? Mr AuM and Mr Brodie to see to the un- 
loadintf of the baggage, we followed the master up 
the lirae to the street that faces the lake, and en- 
tered a tavern. While waiting for dinnt^r he told iia 
of Ills experience in Torctnto, not all, for lie added to 
it for a week afterwards, but the substance of his 
complete story I will tell at once. The morning after 
his arrival he went to the office of the surveyor- 
general, and f(mnd several in the waiting-room; three 
he recognized as having c(tme with him in the 
steamboat from<m. Like himsflf tliey all 
wanted hunl. Talking among themselves, an Eng- 
lishman who said he had been in Torontt) four days, 
declared he liad got sick coining to the office; he had 
thought there would be no difficulty in getting n lot 
and going to it at once, but found it was not so. 
The money he had to carry them to their new home 
was going in paying for Imard of liis family. Unless 
he was a>signed a lot that day, he would cross to 
the States, All were eager to jjet their lots at once; 
Canada invited emigrants yet, when they came to 







llu- Nitrrativp of 

her door, tliiTu was no hurry in serving tlietn. The 
rnastfr usked th ' reascm, an<l [jot a number of an- 
swers. One was tliat there was too much formality 
and reiltape, anotlier tliat the (jfficials were ahove 
tlieir business and tr-.'iited emij;rnnts as if tliey were 
inferior animals. l)ut tlie reason that strucl< tlie mas- 
ter most was tliat given by the emigrant who said 
this was his fourth day, which was, that if an emi- 
grant had any money they wanted him to buy land, 
in--teail of giving bin] a government grant. While 
ihey were talking the headman of tlie otfice walked 
past them, accompanie<l by a gentleman in military 
uniform, and went into the inner room. Both gen- 
tlemen were .speaking loudly. 'Yes,' .said the .sur- 
veyor-general, 'we are building a future empire here, 
and wouhl like more recognition from the Home 
government of our services. We are doing a great 
work with imperfect means.' 'Ah:' exclaimed the 
officer, 'what do you need?' 'We need more money 
and nuire officials to direct the stream of innnif'ra- 
tion.' So they went on gabbling, while by this time 
there were over fifty of us in the waiting-room and 
round the door outside, (letting tired, the master 
asked a clerk who was passing in to see the sur- 
veyor, U) tell him there were a number of emigrants 
wanting lots and if he would be pleased to help 
them. W^e heard the message given and the reply 
'I am engaged with Colonel Rivers, and cannot pos- 
sibly see them today; go and take their names 
and the places where they are staying.' So we gave 

finnlon St^lliir 

our nariii's, saiil the iniuitcr, anil caiiif away sick at 
)itart. Whilo waiting in tlie tavern at a loss wliat 
to .lo tt man caine inti) tlie liurroom ami asltuil it he 
was Mr Anilcrson. Hu luid heanl he wanteil land 
an<i could introduce him to a party wiio wouhl sup- 
ply liiui at a reasonahle price. 'I have not come all 
tlie way from Scotland to pay for land; I exjiect to 
^a't a lot on the j^overiiinent's conditions.' You can 
f,'et such a lot, replieil the stranger, Imt when you 
see it you would not take it. All the governmi'nt 
lots are in the hack ciauitry, and often wet or stony. 
What you want is good land and near a market. 
He talked on, trying to persuade the master to go 
with liini and make a purchase, hut he said In- would 
take time to think over what he had told him. The 
stranger pressed him to come to the har and have a 
treat; the master .saiJ No. After tie was gone the 
master asked the tavern-keeper if he knew the man. 
'Oh, yes, he is a runner for the l.ig hugs who have 
lanil for sale.' 'How came he to know I wanted 
land?' 'Were you not at the surveyor - general'.s 
office this morning and left your name? here is a 
regular machine to get all the money • of you 
emigrants that can be s()uee2ed.' The landlord said 
nearly all the desirable land was held hy private 
persons, who had got large grants under one pre- 
tence or another and who were selling it for cash, 
when the emiirraiit had any. or on mortgage if he 
had none, for if he faileil in his payments they got 
the lot back with all the improvements the emigrant 

I* J 




Tlirt .Wtrrntivfl of 

oii'l his family had iimcle. After diiiiier tlie muster 
tixjii II wiilk, iiikI passini; ailing the street tlie 
thought struck hini tliat he sliould call at the post- 
office, for tliere miglit lie a letter from Scotland. 
Asking a gentleman to direct him to the office, the 
reply was he was going that way and would show 
him. 'You're a Scotchman,' remarked tlie gentle- 
man, 'What part are you from?' Kroni Ayr^-liire. 
'That is my native county.' .So they talked until 
the office was reached. Standing at the door, the 
master told him of his perplexity ul«)ut getting 
land. 'Ask if there is a letter for you,' directed 
the stranger. There was none. 'Now come with 
me ami I will try to Kml out some way to help 
you.' They entered a large store, opposite the 
market-place, of which the gentleman was nwuer. 
The place was crowded with customers waiting their 
turn to be served. Taking him into a cuhhy-hole 
of an office he asked the master to speak frankly, 
to tell him how much lun.l he wanted, what money 
he had, and the numhcr of his family. When he 
lull' learned all, Mr Uunlop, f,,r that was his name, 
said, 'You may give up your notion of getting land 
for the fees. All the good land, so far surveyed, is 
in the hands of our gentry, who live by selling it 
or of speculators. The lots the surveyor- general 
would give you would lie dear for nothing, they are 
so far away. You want to be as near the lake, or 
a town or village as you can manage, .so that you 
can buy and .sell to advantage. Many who go on 
remote lots have to leave them after undergoing 

Iiiinliili Srllnr 

Miflirinjjs HO l'liri>t|jin iniin (ir wcinun >|j<iulil en- 
iliirc. I mil liiisy 11.. w; C..III.' Liick lit lour i.'il.«.k 
iiii.l I will Hnil out wliiit i-iin Li' iloii.- ' 

On returning t.. tlie .sl.iro »l tlmt li.- f.iiiml 
Mr Dunlop lia.l Ltcn ciilkd ttwiiy, l.ut Iih.I li.ft a 
letter, which he wiis to lUlivir. With some .lilli- 
culty the nmstir fouiiil the liouse. There wiw i 
man anil woiimn sitting' in the ..-hn.le ..n the i.toi.|i, 
Renilinjr the letter he wiis iiskeil lo sit .hiwn. The 
master .lescrihcd the man as short iiii.l thin iinil 
well up in years, l.ut wiry un.l active. Hi« wife 
was comely for her years, with a placiil expre, -ioti. 
In reply to hia first i|iiestiiin, the master aililns«-,l 
him as Sir. 'Use not that wonl a(;ain; all m. n iir.' 
eiiual hefore Orel; not the vain .listinetions l.y 
whidi so many try lo maj;nil'y tlieni.siKis iin.l n.t 
themselves apiirt from their fellow.-.' The mastir 
was taken ahack. The wife explniii.-.l that they 
were Frieiuls. whom the worlil naiiie.l yuak.T.. 
anil that their yea ami nay meant what they ex. 
pre..seii; they .lesire.l ilirectiiess .m.l sine.rily in 
speech. Both took much interest in what the 
ti'r t.ilil tl'.em, for they kept .|uesti.)niii^ him until 
they learned how he came to leave Sentlanil ami of 
the voyii<;e. Tliey were str'jck l.y his account ..f 
the ship grounilinj,' off Newfonmllan.l ami tli.' wife 
remarkeil 'Thee iliil wi-U to ffive thanks to llim 
who saveil you.' The aiklress of Mr Kerr they ask- 
ed for, anil the master pri.iuiseil to i;et it. 'He liiw 
suft'ereil as we have anil still ilo, fi.r we 
have nu voice in the fjoveinnient of the country iin.l 



The Xurrativ^ ot 

|i I 

cmi hold ru> office.' A girl luiuo to tlio diHir who 
saiil supper was reaily. The iimster nwc to Ii-hvb, 
'Niiy, thfu must break hruHii with ua; theu I'xt a 
utriintfi'r in u strange land,' said the wife, an she 
tdiik hold of his arm The evenirii; passed too 
quickly, for the master enjoyed his company. On 
rising tog.), the Quaker told liini ho had a lilock of 
land he had taken for a \md ilebt. 'And what is the 
price you put on it?' asked the master. I do not 
sell in that way. Thou must see the land an<l if it 

suits thee, c( ^ Imck, and I will tell thee itii price. 

Thee take l.rinkfuNt as early as tln^y can give it, ami 
you will Hn.i a mun "horn we call Jali'i waiting to 
lead thee whert- the land is.' 

Neit morning us the sun waa rising over the lake, 
the master overheard a man in the lurrooni asking 
for him, and hurried from the tiible. He was tall 
an.l gaunt, with a .vi't mouth that spoke ot decision 
of eharact.-j-. At the door were two .saildled horses 
and in a few minutes they wen' trotting up Yonge 
street. When they had to slow down, on account .)f 
the road becoming full ot yawning holes, Jatjez had 
much to say about backwoods farming. He had not 
the personal e.x-e-ience of a settlor, but had seen 
much ot backwoods life and had known scores who 
had tried it. 'Not one in live succeeds," ' • sai.I, '.some 
fail from not having money to feed -■ families 

until enough land is under crop to ma. ain them, 
others from going on stony or .san<ly lots that yield 
only poor crops, and not a few from going where it 
is marshy and fevcr-and-ague prevail. Many go into 

(iorttoa Sfillnr 


the hiirkwoixU wlm )itivi> not tlu> iiiit-cl<- for '\U tianl 
work or who will imt 1 1? coiiturit to live on pork ami 
putatxws, until tiny luiu avl bctttr, yvt even they 
mif^ht do liad they perseverance and self-denial. The 
Scotch anil tlie Nortlt of Ireland people, accustomed 
to hard work and spare livinjf, seldom fail.' They 
were ridinj; past much land in hush, generally with- 
out a strip of clearing. Jab(>z remarked the curse of 
Canada was giving land tu people who would not go 
to live upon it, who had no intention of clearing it, 
but held it to sell. A <leal of that land you ace was 
given as grants to old soldiers. A colonel could claim 
1200 acres, a major 80(). a captain 600 acres, and a 
private 100 acres. Not one in twenty who drew 
their lots meant tu live on them, and of the few who 
tried most of them failed and left. Speculators had 
their agents round taverns and stores ready to buy 
soldiers' tickets, and got transfers for a few dollars, 
sometimes for a keg of whiskey or a hundredweight 
of pork. If you want to kill a country, deal out its 
land as grants to old soldiers. It docs the soldiers 
no good and keeps back settlement, for the grants 
they got are left by speculators unimproved, to the 
huit of the genuine f^tttUrs, who want roads opened 
fences put up, and ditches dug. You will find out 
this yourself when you begin to clear a lot. This 
giving away land to soldiers is well meant, but sol- 
diers wont go on it and it is Just a way to make 
speculators rich. No man should get an acre from 
the government unless he binds himself to live on 
the land and clear it. On the master saying be was 


' mi 


Thr Sarratin n( 


tolil much land waa got by pi>litician», Jadci; ^rriw 
warm in ilenouiicinj; tlieni WlmtcviT parly wa- in 
office, use<l the lanil aH a means nt«Ty. They 
bimjfht the support of miinlK'r* l.y (.-rants of huiil 
and, when an election came rouml, jjot the settlers to 
vote iw they wish<id uniler threats nf making them 
act up to the letter of their nettleinent duties or of. 
fering back-dues and clear titles in retnrn for their 
support. No candidate opposeil to the government 
can he electeil for a backwoods eiiuiity. With such 
talk Jabez relieved their journey until they came to 
a »ide-road, which wan a mere bridle-path. Up this 
they turned, passinj,' through soli.i bush It was a 
bright, hot day in the clearing.*, but under the trees 
it was gloomy and chill, with a moist odor (.f vege- 
tation which was grateful to the master, and this 
was his tint experience of the bush. Fallen trees, 
which lay across the track, their horses jumpeil, as 
they also did on meeting wet gullies. ,lal«?i said the 
path had been brushed by an Englishman, rumored 
the son of a lord, who had bought the bio. k of land 
intending to stay on it. That was the only improve- 
ment he made. He came late in the Fall and society 
in Toronto was umre agreeable than felling trees. He 
bet on horse-races that took place on the ice and 
spent the evenings at cards. In the .'■pring his money 
was gone; had to sell his land to pay his ilebts, and 
returned to England. On reaching the end of the 
bridle-path the horses were hitched. Jabez searched 
among the brush until he fouml u surveyor's stake. 
Placing a compass on top of it, he cut with his jack- 

fionlim StllHt 


kiiifi' thrco nxls which hr pniiitril He [iimhcil two 
intii the Hoil on uithor sMh* of thf stiiki-. anil wf nt 
ahi«d with the third. HiMtinR thi- im.ter iM'hinil the 
tirst, tie told him tu kiep thu three in rnnj!' nnd to 
»huut to him if he atrpped on eithir side. I'roduc- 
inj; from the Im;; Udiind his anddlr a hiitclict. he 
went forward, cuttin;,' down the lirush where it 
Mocked Ilia .straight When some hundred 
yards away he cried to the master to come on, it 
Wft.s nil rij;ht. On jninins; him Jnl«i! pointed ton 
scar made in tlic' Imrk of n mapl.v That is the aur- 
veyor's lilaie. ma<le five years ajjo. I was in doubts 
where In tind it, for the weiither has hluckeneil it. 
We an- all rijflit now, and will Knd another fartlier 
on.' .So they ili.l, several mori', thou(;li they were 
ao faint only the trained eye of Jahez could detect 
thelii. As he cunLe t(j each tree, he used the hatchet 
to make a fresh hlaze, while any l.ranch that oli- 
structed the view hctwecn the blazed trees was 
loppe.l oH: Suddenly it jjrew li;,diter: they were 
aj,'ain in the sunshine and In-fore then] was a sheet 
of water. It was tcs. small to he called a lake; it 
was just a pond, set in the heart id' the wooils. The 
master was ijreatly taken with it and leaning over 
a log drank heartily, for the »-ater was clear and 
sweet, though warm. 'We maj iis well re.^t and 
take our liite here,' remarked J. /.. proilucing from 
the pouch slung at his Luck v.,,,,, soliliers' hiinl tack, 
with thin sliced pork U-tween instead of hutter. He 
explained it wa.s hard to tell the i|uulity of the soil 
in the woods, anil many were deceivei, especially as 




Thi* \itrr;itlrfl «/' 

rB|{nril,H itimi'i. TIib furusl liiu-r oivum tlipiii itiifl it 
it iieily wliiMi till' pliiw i.i »urt.'il tlint tli- .ir tiler 
Hn<U liM htt^ A iut thfit will ;r;v«> him niariy a liruil 
luick ill trying tojji't rid ..f tin- wwrit .if them. Wh.'ii 
ym linrl lii)( trois nuipl,' ,,r uny kind of hiir.1 

w I. it i.H It sure »ii;n th.' ■(nil i< rich, Imt if the trees 

are «crilli ur nf n.ift woo.! it i< eoruiii ti> Iw p.xr. 
Piilf is ni>t tn Ik.' rt'lifl on ha iti<licutiii){ j^ood Iiirtil 
fur the Hottler. The tallest ami Hm•^t piiii's iire iifU'n 
on the tcjp of stony riilj.'es. Sturtiu); iiiiew, they 
came to tile .HtivAiulet that feil the pond and a short 
tramp heyoiiil it Jahe/ spied another siirvt^yor's 
stake, Thi* i* the western limit of Kumhray's lot; 

lietween the two stakes h.^ has 400 acres,' lie asked 

the master if he wanted to cross the lot len);thways 
and sec the two emls, hut he s«w no need, for so far 
us he couhl judije the land was all of the same 
inality, .SnpposinK I laiy the lot, how am I to (-et 
into it?' 'Yon will have to continue the l.ridle- 
patli to where yon place your house, ami that is 
eiiou;4li for an ox-sledj{e,' "Tliat means some work T 
'Yes,' replied Jabe/ smiliii',^ "there is nothini; to lie 
had in the hush without hard work; it is hard work 
and poor f^ruh,' 

Omini,' hack to the horses, they found they liail 
finisheil the oats Jahez had lirou^ht, and were nih- 
blini; at tlie leaves within ri-'acli. On regaining 
Yonge street, the horses were watered at a tavern, 
■Jahez tlnippiiig live coppeis on the counter, the 
pric.: of two drinks. 'You are expected to drink 
'.vhen yon sMp to water a horse, but I want no 

fiiU'/ftn Sf.'hir. 


wliinkiy, I pri'fi r to |»iy Vur what tin- In>r>ts •Iriiilo ' 
Arrivi-il in T'lnuit't tlir irirt<«t<r oitiil hr wtpiiM ^'o 
anil NCI* Mr Hiiiii)>rFiy tiFtt-r -iipptT. JitU>z litkt^l liim 
to rtiiiH-Mil I tluit ijuikrr^ <!<' ixtt 'lickiT, ■**} if tliM 
piiccwti-. to., hi'^rli t'''i liiiii t') i»tiy to pniin' *wfty lit 

I..' iiiL-^tt^T fimmi Mr Hniiilu-iiy r.-n<liri^ •! iifw-.- 
|)a[) r r<,|.| tiiiii lif w) H sftti-^ti'il with thu lari>l ari<l 
w.iiil'l l.u; >. V rtr. lii-- [KHL' within hi-tahility. Tim 
t^l'iiil.-i'r tm K fitiiii I 'I<'-<k t sh«'i>t if puper; poiiitintf 
til thi- ii;^iir'' -. vrit'- n "11 it ht! ah'iA, I do not .li'ul in 
luml. l.'lir^u.; 't M't t. .,<• ;i<rn>t'iihti> with thf t.^nch- 
in;( of thi- <;..H},i I t<i riiiik iiiLTfhuntiiz'- of wh.itUo.i 
intt>mii'>l for jill lii^ chihTi-ii. I <lo not con-^i'I-r 't 
rij;ht to Imy Ini.t yiiu ar n tt ubh- or Wo iir^t uu-'n 
to ninkt* u-i- ol, I lit j^i'cun- w itii ti vii-w t" - 'I 'tt ■:> 
uilvHncf.l pricr t- tht- nan wliu will <■; ',..,im' ii 
Tht'si' 400 acres wt-re tran-fiiTi-il t" ti ',. i- ,\ <n-r 
(li-ht which thf uiun conil not uthfrw ; <^' 
tins iiiif is the amount ot' that ih'ht, r- i ' < U- 
ie;;al char;;ji-M p«i*l '»y in- in ihi- tp-aiisu '.; -n ;' ' 
hert' is intt-n^t. Th- wi, .!.• touls 9472, vi.--: :- 
the prici'.' Tht' ma-ster wn surprisfil. for from u ''^'i 
he hmi heanl of tin' p^L■t■^ aski-tl lor himl so ciosi' 
to Toronto at least .loiihU; wjuM h iVf lit'i-n *iui{lit. 
'My frit'mU ami I arr al'h' to pay that sum to you 
ami W't-' take the lan.i.' The Vuaker moveil not a 
Biuitcle. Takitif^ up a quill he wrutf out a promise 
of sale, anti wxs ;;ivi-ii u Imik of Scotlati'l note for 
ten poiitnii (H s'lr.-ty. Impiirihi; wliat >tep-» he 
would next take, the iim-t-T w-i-i advised to secun' 






Thr XfiiTfitiii 

the stTvices of Jabez for a month at least. 'Thee 
are ifjnomnk of bush-fanning ami neeil an instruc- 
tor, oth.irwixc hiss will liefull thoe and much trouble." 
Arranging for the hnal transfer of the land, the 
mnstir sought out JbIjiz. He and two brothers 
carried on a cartage business. Jaliez said there 
would not be more calls than his brothers could 
attend to until August, and he would go if he was 
willing to pay two dollars a ilay for himself and an 
ox-team. That is settled,' replied the master. 'Now 
what is to be done first?' 'To cut out a sledge-road 
across your lot, so that you may get your freight 
in.' To help he was to hire a man, and it was ar- 
ranged to start at daylight. 

Next morning Jaliez appeared at the door of the 
tavern with an • ■ 'enm, and seated beside him in 
the wagon was . ^ ..uth. 'This is Jim Sloot, who 
can bundle an a.\e with any man. You have that 
to learn. It is the axe that has made Canada.' Ar- 
rived at the bridle-; .ith that led to their lot, they 
bad a day's work im it brushing and prying off 
fallen trees. On reaching the lot master had b,.uglit, 
trees had to be felled to continue the path. 
Jabe/ :uid .lim assailed, while master trimmed their 
branches off with a hatchet On the evening of the 
tiiird day they were in sight of the pon.l, when the 
master lid't, for the Kingston boat might arrive next 
morning, an.l he must be on hand to meet his fami- 
ly. How iie met us I have already told. 

a onion Sfllfir 


CllAl'TKIl VI. 


Our frfiijlit. «sJal.i-z Uthii'.I it, Hllo.l tlir.-i! Wii.,ri)rn 
mtiil sturti-'i! lip Y« 1111^1.' -street. A i'otirtli wai^nii emne 
t(i the iliiurof tile tavern the w en .ui.i chil- 
dren, I li.' left til llelp tlielil. We were tolil t.i 
stop lit Mr DiinliipV store tor supplies thiit hiul heen 
iHtntrht. He eiinie nut t4i see us uml in u niiliute 
was thick in talk with the wiinien iilmut Ayrshire. 
On the team .•'tartiiii; he ileclareii meetiiii; thcni was 
like a visit til Scntlnnil. The ilriver poinlcl nut tn 
as luiw stniieht Viinj^e-street was; runs fui-ty miles 
to Ijike Siincoe strai^'ht as the hnmile of my whip. 
It was a .jolty, hot ilrive hut we enjoyoil it hujjely; 
everythinir wa,s new to u.s ami we were all in hijj;h 
spirits at the prospect of our loiifr journey hi'iii); 
aUint to enil ami in cominjj; int<i |xisse.ssioii of our 
estates, ahout which there was no eml of jokes, 
Mrs Auhl was in 'loulits as to what name they 
would jjive their hunilretl acres, while Mrs Brodie 
Bettleil rm Konnyhraes for hers. Hut we liave not 
seen a hill since we left Montreal, remarkeil the 



Thf \nrrative r>t 

liiistn'ss. I (liiina care,' rejoineil Mrs Brcnlie, 'Bnn- 
nyl'rties was the imnie of the farm wo left ami it 
will iitukt- the wdcmIs huiiiflilie.' When \v»- spit-d at 
a. disttincL' ,s*'VfraI men standiii'; liy the nwisiih* we 
i,Mve ashniittif jny ami were simn n-Hnite«l. Tlie 
hm^liin;,' jiinl tiilkinfj niiifht havi- l>een heard half a 
milt- liway Jat>ez nuw todk thu leu<t. A-^ the 
wafjuiis arrived In- liail caused them tn lie unluailed 
under a cUitiip of heudcx'ks, tlie cliests and |iack- 
a^'us Itein^r urranjjed to make a tiire-'-sidi-d ench'sure. 
In i'runt he hud -^tiirte-l a tire, over which, slung 
fiuiM a i"'le re>tin;; i>n fri.te!ie<l ,vtiek- was a pot, 
and Mion tile mistress wa- iMLjiHrini.' >u[)[irr. It 
Wiis dark I-efore we hiwl settled tur tin iii^dit. which 
was so warm that sleepin;; under the tnes wa^. no 
lianlship. Julwz covered the dyini; tire with damp 

htter, the smoke Ol whicli kept ■•t1' the litosrjnitow, 
wiiieh pe'itrred us dreadfully. 

In tlu' morniui,' JalM'z was tiie tirst to l-e .stirring. 
(iivin<; me two pails he directeti me t" '^o t" a h<iu>e 
1 would ti:iil a Kit, df)wn Vunyt— *tr— ^ t.. mi( wdttT, 
and, if tie y had it, milk, Th. h"i)-.e I ti.iind 
and al>o thf well, hut ieiw to itraw water ont of 
it I kiu'w nut. There was nuUMly stirriii;; until 
my awkward attempts to work tlw hucket hrou^ht 
H man -ut. I told liim whu I was. 'You uic an 
emigrant and this is the tirst sweeji-weil you have 
tried t" work. Well. now. you liave „''»t to Ii;arn,' 
and In? showed me how simple it 'a n- He wa-Q 
much interested when he h<nrd - f i"ii {larty hucI 
of their camping out. "Stiiy a inmutf till I tell 

(iimiofi Sflbir 


ni..tlnr ('..luitii,' Iwik :■- tii.> .i...,i- I;.- cri,.! to mo 
to jjd (m with the Wtttt-r and he would f.-toli ir.ilk 
after a whilf The porri'l;,'!' was n-u'ly wInn he 
and liis wifi' ftppean-d with the milk, lit- culled liis 
wife rtiotht-r, wliieh we thought straii<;i'. Sht- wa.-i 
a smart, tidy woman iukI wii^ soon deep in advice 
t(i uiir liousekeejiers ulmut hush ways of (Kiiii;; tliin*;s 
and hush cookery. After they haii pme their chil- 
dren, thret' in numher, came shyly round anil watch- 
c'l un with opiii-eycd curiosity. 

Jahe/ wa> in Iniste to j^i-t us moved to oiir own 
location, and to lio >o had provided two ox^K-ds. 
Tnkiiii; clmr^'e of om- .md Slooi of the other ihty 
dja<;j;ed the tir^t l.-nds nv.r the l.u-h track, all the 
mm. excej)! the um>I. r, following:. On nluinilij; 
for a SI on<l Inad. Jal.i-/ imported Hrodie and >uld 
wen- pleastd witli the laM<i iin<l tlmt Allan arnl the 
clnldreii weic ha\in;; a wa--. in the pond. How to 
;;et u'raiinie thl.>n;,di the woods cunc rned the mus- 
t.T. .l,d../. -.Iv.-d til. ddhndty l.y oiakinii a eoi,,- 
t'.atal'i'- e'au'ii I'li hi- •^l.■d. i-n which -In- rc-t-d. \\ iiL 
the iiia-trr nn one side. li.-oMc niiiidni,' al.ii^-id( 
of the ox. an. I iny-elf foil., win- .S,, ,|-,wly and 
can-fully did tlf i.\ ^ti-p ihat ;.'mniii'' way- \\{\U- dis. 
cumpoM.i Oil -ti ]i|,in.,' li-om h. r rmii- eorivryance, 
she fTHZtd in \v..nder on the pi.n.i and the foj.>t 
that eneotnpiis-td it Thi i- our -lew I'artn,' -houtetl 
Allan in her ear A tin- jjroimd and the lakief' 
'Yes,' answered Allan, 'An thae trees< Vfs. rc- 
]»lied hi.T jjrandson. 'father is laird of it all. She 
stood for n minute ..r two a- d' dazed, and then a 


\:i rr.t 1 1 VI' 

lijrht crtrne tu her face as it' >ilit- luul su'Mcnlv com- 
prelifiiHt'il it nil. She stcpptMl to the master, and 
hiyiii^r )iL>r hiiiitls on Iiis shoulders said. 'Voii have 
been a ^mxl and true son and weel you (ieserve to 
Iw a laird.' Seeing a hhick si|uirrel jump from tree 
to tree Rohhie dartt'tl off with a shout oV t,dee. 

Jahe/ cut a number of poles, and with them and 
blankets made two momy tent-, which were to ;;ive 
shelter until shanties were built. Before sites for 
them couM be picked out it was necessary to divide 
the 400 acre lot, Brodie and Aiild were to j^et each 
a hundred acres and they were a!:freed in ehoosin;^ 
the portion of land that lay south of the road and 
includfrd the pond. The nia-^ter, as I found later, 
would have likeil that part for liiniMilf, hut willing;- 
ly aLfreed to thr-ir choice. Tlie next point was to 
divide tlie 200 acres between Aisl^l and Srodie. 
Covered etjually with heavy bush tl-.-re wn tio ap- 
parent ditference, yet a division hao to be made. 
.)abe^, seeinjf that <m#' waited on the other to decide, 
cut two twij;s and heM them out between his 
litiijrr- 'Tlir man who draws the lon^ one, ijets 
til." ,-ast half, and the short one the west.' Mrodie 
drew the Ion;,' bit of .stick ami Auld the short It 
was a;,'reed to rais»' Brixlie's shanty tir?-t. as he had 
youn;r cliiliiren, and the Aulds couUl stay with them 
until their own shanty was ready, Brodie selected 
the spot for liis honie, am' we began at once to 
cut the treehi that stood upon :t. Saturday evening 
Jabez and Jim returned to Toronto to -stay over 
•Sunday. The weaAher had Ijeen warm with two 

(lanion St*lhir 

showt'rH Hiiil crinipii)}^ wan no iliscuinfort iH-yond the 
inpunvenienci' U> thf women. Tliere was no coin- 
plftiiiin>j[, tor we wen' rtil in ^'""1 ■'pirits, Imoyetl up 
with the pr»i-p('ct of futnrt' prosperity, nuA <li'ttrni- 
ined, if hanl wnrk wouM cnsuri- it. wr wuul<l tint 
spare ourselves. Our tasks lor tlie week were i-ml- 
ed an<l we ;;athere4l on thi- j-itenf Bnnlic's liousv, sit- 
ting on the t'elk'fl trees It vfta* a calm iii;rht with 
soft air, the inounKrinus niakin;^ a puthwa}- of li;;ht 
across tlie |ii'ii.|. Xom* seenietl inclintil ti» >priik, 
jn>t waiitini; tn i't;st am! t-iijoy the peacctnl liuut'. 
It wa-- Alici- wln) hn>ki' the silcnct; hy stiirtini; to 
siller. an>l >onii t'nlloweil sim^r, all Joiiiinj,r wln-'ii thi-re 
was a chorus. It was a stran;;e thought that eaiiie 
into my mitul. that for all the ai^es tiiese wooils an<l 
hik.-l..-t liM.l . \i.te,! thi- was the tir-t tim<- th.^y ha^i 
eclm.-l hack -iir St-nitish mfinilir-, \Vh. ii Aliiv 
startf.l Vr l.aiik- an.l hnus ,/ hoimy \h>->\i. wr ].r\y- 

ci ill tllf lir>t v.-i>.-. hut iis the >Crllf> wr hiiij li'I't 
ruse l-efure mir miii'l.s vnjces i|naveretl, until all in-- 
CH»w silent, tt-ars tltiwt'il, antl Mrs AuM was sohhirii; 
'Thi-. wiiiit '!•>, t^-iii'<l tin.''r "wr ha\r c<'\\u- luic 
as t" n l.inii 'it pminisf anil th>ic must !»■ nu lonk- 
inif liackwjinl W'v -^u t'niwar<i Alic, -tart tlie 
^fcoihl paiaplii.ts.' iuhI I'i.- v< tnlifil.' 

I ha\<' M' i< iiijtny a tiuc Salihatli morning i>ut 
none 0- \tw like that oiic which was uur first in the 
hush. The -.rr'nity of air an<l sky. the .-oleninity 
of th<- wouils, the stillness -weften<'il hy the son^ 
of hirds. >lruck even the chil'iren, who were ijuietcr 
than usual, After hreakfast aii'l t' lugs were ti-tie'l 


Tlif M/trruth-p of 

up we hail wonthip. Th.' luiuiter rcail iiflMtiiiiiK fnim 
the ciDsin;; cliiiptfr« nf Hdirews, nn<l liis prayer 
was one (if thankfulness to tlie llanil tinu had pre- 
serveil us on uur jnuiney ami hniu).'ht us to n i^uiet 
restin;; place. Mrs Auhl heanl the ehihiren Iheir 
iplestions anil ha<l a lively time in sei.l.lin(; und 
ccaxiiiK them hy turns to never miiiil tlie s.|uirrHl» 
liut attenil to what she was sayinjj. 

'I'he dinner thiti(;s hail hi-en cleared away when • 
visitor came out of the lie hail a red, tiahhy 
face, framed in a thick whisker turnin;; ;,'rey The 
chief feature of his dress was a Ion;; surlout, that 
liad Is'en part id' a ^entlentim's dress-suit in its A»y 
and a shahhy tile hat. Adilre.ssin;,' the mastir with 
delilHTate ceremony, he told how he had heanl of 

new-comers and felt it his duty to weleo them 

and tender his services, lie had heen four years in 
<'iiiada and his experience would he of hi^rh value 
in ilirectiuK them what to do. (irowin^' voluiili- he 
pointed out what he cnnsidered were the mistaken 
Wi- had already made, indinj; with a plump proposal 
that, for his hoard and a certain moni-y eonsidi ra- 
tion, he would take the direction of the settlement 

and pjarantee its imi liate prosperity lie paused 

and asked for a drink, Mrs Auld handed him a 
iliplnT .Smelling it, he ,saiil experiene- had tau^^ht 
him the jinidence of never drinking lake wat«r 
without its In-ill;; r|ualitied hy a few si.,,oiifuls of 
whisky 'If you will he so kind,' he ~aid 1.. Mn 
Anld as t.. hrini; your ((reylK'anl, I shall Imve 
pleaaiire in jriving a toast to your new settlement' 

Oordon .S(»//ar 

'Whisky: crieil Mra Aulil, ■there's no a drop to )« 
fouml hiTc' Turninj} to tlic inastor he saiil, 'Thin 
will never ilo; you will need hees to riiise the i.h«n- 
ties, to chop, ttn<l to fallow, and not « uiun will coins 
unles.s there is whisky and plenty to eat. A ke^ of 
Toronto's best will Is,, to you a paying investment.' 
The master, who had rcinaineil silent, carerully niea- 
surinj,' the stranger, now si)oke. 'I thank you for 
your advice, as to yiiur help we do not nee.l it, for, 
as you see, we are strong in ourselves.' The Kng- 
lishinan, for such he was. grew angry. 'You un- 
mannerly Scot, you will have cause to regret scorn- 
ing my services. 1 never had such a rece|itlon, for 
in the pmirest shanty they greet with a eup of 
welcome.' .So saying he di-appeared. In U'lling 
Jals'Z of him ne.^t day, he ,^alli the master had dune 
well to come out siju.irel\ Kei's liiui grown to l.e a 
nuisance and a li~.. When they heard of ..rie, 
drinkii's would travel ten wdes to attind and 
other.' came iu-.t for the sport of the day. The 
settler would run iu deht to lay in a stock of fis«| 
anil whisky. Out of the crowd that wiaild come 
neveral would not ilo a hand's lorn, hut .Irink and 
eat, part wool. I work during the forenis.n and then, 
after dinner, join in the talk and dnnkirii: while 
the remainiier would put m a faithful ilay s Ulsir 
It often happi-n,'! that tiees ended m quarrels, some, 
times in lights, A -i-ttler. Jahez .said, would do helter 
to use the cost ni drink anil fisid in hiring lahor. 

In the afternoon the women hegan writing lettcm 
to .Scotland, using the tops of chests to rent the 

I.' J 


>* r 




Thi* SiirrAtivfi of 

pnpiT on. Th,. sli,.,.tH Kt-rr cr.)*s,.,l ,i„.l ivcn.sse,!. 
for«Ku w,is l.ifrh, fifty c.>.it» the half ..iiiic... 
Alhiii uii.l I wiilkiHl into t)ii liu>li to sw what it 
was likf. Th.' lrw» weri' nil hir;;e luul wi'll set 
apart with littlf un.KThriish Fiillori Im-s nml ,lo- 
cayini; loi;a uIiouihIi .!. WhuthiT it wns jinnpin;; <>r 
Koiii;; ruini.l tlifs,- thnt o,iiis.'il us to h)s,. our way 
I ciiriiiot siiy, l,ui .irt,.r II lonj,' walk Wf failuil to 
sijjlit tlu^ poii.l. \\\. iuft,if a fri'sh stnrt iilhl tric.l 
iinotliur iliriTtion witliout sucofss. 'VW' nre lost, for 
sun-.' . xduiund Allan. Puttin;. his lmn.l« to hi.s 
mouth he let out ii yi-ll that ,starlli',l tho crows from 
a trut-tcjp \\i' listi>ni-,l. thi-ri' wa^ no answi'iinR 
sonnil. Thill ho wiostk.l Ions; ami .sliarp, A^-ain no 
answer. ,Jali.z hail point.eil out to nu. that the 
north coulil alway.- he known l.y more moss (rruw- 
ill}; on that si.le ,it tries, ,iii,| I ileciile.l We hail lieen 
ti-avi-llin;; in .liivetioii. If we c.ulil have jrot 
a Lfliinpse of the sun we woulil have known for 
sure the |i,im, ol' il„. eonipass. I.nt the folinjre of 
the ti-eelnps pivventeil a ray (jetting tlirii^rh. We 
walkeil smartly, as u'e thought southwar.l--. when 
Allan aijain yelleil « ith nil his inijrht. .Strange to 
say. an hillo came from the vi'ooil.s on our left ami 
ijuite close to us. We hurrie.l in tlie ilirection of 
the .souml ami came out on a small clearance with a 
shanty in the iiii.Mle. A young fellow 
stooil at the iloor. 'Lost your Ijcaiin:;.*. eh?' he ask- 
eil. ■Yes,' answere.1 AlU'n, ■an.) ;;la.i you hennl my 
yell.' lie leil us into the shanty, the table was 
spread for supper anil a man ami woman were .seat- 

fffntnii St-lhir 

fil ifinly til l.f({iii 'Tlii-.f twci fellow- iint Scuttiea, 
ncw-cujiu' tMit, mill ii»t wiuiili>ri-il,' wni mir intru- 
iliictiiiii Ki's|ii>iiiliiiir I" II hciirty iiivitiitiiin, si«t9 
wuiv fuuri.l anil «i' lit'ljii'il to ili>]io«ii of tlii' iliiiil 
venison nnij liriiiil that wiii on the iKmnl. i)iil you 
I'Vir tiisti' c-oH'ir like tliiitf ii.^keil tile woniiin as 
Allan piisspil in his tin for n cecoml r-iipply. Tliut 
is l.uslieoffee iinil lutter tlmii llie stuivslnti: It is 
niilile from ilnmlelion roots iiml I will tell your folk 
how to Illlike it' They were Americiins unii liiwl 
leil II wiimlerini,' life, for the fiither was a trapiier. 

(lame lieo in); scarce from ^rrowin;; settlement on 

the Aiiiericaii siile he liail cros-eil into Canaila an.l 
hail spent the last two winters rouml lake Simcoe. 
■There is no liuntini,' after Felirmiry ' he saiil, for 
every critter then l.e};ins nursing' anil the fur is not 
Worth piiyiu!,' for, so we eame south ami took this 
shanty, setlinij to work to make axhelves ami 
sliinj;les, there heinj; -iile in Toronto We 
move luick to tliv hike- in tl.. K,ili 1 aske'l him 
aliout th.- shanty, lie! 'i„l u was not liis 
nor iliii he kimw \vho>e it Wiw !,.ike inoii;;)i M.ine 
|i"nr eiiii-riiit ihvn llie lot ami after l.ivakiii!; hi- 
hack with hanl uoik in iiiakiii;; a clearance, foioi'; 
he coiihl not pay the price anil jimt lit out, Voi 
will Ku'l ilescrtcil slianties everywhere in the hii^h 
left hy familiev who lost heart ' He showe.l much 
interest in our coming' an.l we hail .lillicuUy in j;et- 
tinjj him to ncojjui/,,. ,iir locution. It was not until 
I nientioile.i the Jion I that he recoj^niz -,1 the spot. 
■ VVhy, you aiiit much lOer a mile to i;o,' Wii.-n we 



Tbt Kmrntin of 

were aliout to start the whole family got reaily to 
go with un. The aun won't net for an hour yet, and 
there is gooil moonlight,' saiii Simniinii, for that he 
told UK *n.-< Wm name. Did you never get hwtf I 
asked. That is a foolish question tu ask of any- 
IxHly iKirn in the woods for they never hm their 
sense of ilirection.' He advi.wd me to carry a coin- 
pass and take its Iwariiiffi in going and follow them 
in returning, .Suddenly Mrs Simmin.i burst into 
song. It was a liyinn, sung in a stylo I never 
heard, luit liuve since at nmny a taiiipmoet- 
ing. Her voice was stiong, rising to a shriek at 
high notes. The hushnnd anil sou Joined in. enjoy- 
ing it as iiiiich us shi- did. In telling me of the 
alario felt iit c iir n.>t r.turning to supper, Alice said 
tiny silt f.iiring something hud lnfuUen us, and that, 
if the night set in, we might Is' lost and never he 
fi.nnd aliv,., when suddenly th. y heard frum the 
depths iif the woods the word. 
Then l.t our .Slings resuund 
And every heart he love; 
We're marching through Kmmnnui I's ground 
To fairer worlds alsive 
Distance mellowed the harshness of the voices and 
the words .sounded lik,- a message from li.'aven. 
Their distress was that neither Alliin's voice tiur my 
own wns distiiiguisliahle. (Jlad tlu^y were when we 
emerged from the trees and joined them round the 
tire that had been made to hhize iis u guide to us. 
Our visitors made themselves nt home at once. 
'Why do you call your son Sal?' asked the mis- 
tress, that is u girl's name.' The icply was, 'His 

Oortioa !M/»r 


8uD(Iay ranie in Salvation Siniminft; wf call him Sal 
for tthort' 'And ynur hunliaiid addrenwes you iw 
Jeilu; what narou In IhatT I wax a girl of Hixtemi 
l«fore I was l<apiiwil, and the prvachtT ^ve me 
the namv Jediithan, bt>cHU<«t> 1 wa.'* the cliiff miiHi* 
etan ' 'Jeduthan wa.s a man. the fricinl of Davul.' 
'Bihic don't suy hv. wa.** a man, and fur years an<l 
yran I whs the chiff iiitiKirinn ut tlu> canipnteet- 
ing". Guess it was the suni*! in David i tinif hi in 
nur> — the woiiH'ii did tlu- heft (if tin.' Min^inK'' Tln-n 
the Wgaii singing, hu^^hand and son htdping, 'Why 
don't you all sing^ she askfd, 'aint yim got religion 
ytl^ My. if you hmrd Elder Cnlvtr you would l>o 
<»n your knee« and get con\erted right away.' The 
ini>tress •.aid they did not know tlie wtirds <if the 
li}«ins ?«he iiftng, when >lie In came curiuns to hc-ar 
Dx Alice struck up Ciinr, kt ns to tli<- Lord our 
Olid, and we alt joint-'. WIr-w!' exeluinied Mrs 
Siniuiin.H, Mry pretty, hut that aint the stuti' to 
bring sinners to the penitent-)<t-nch — you ha\e tu 
Ite loud and strong. Kver Inar a negro hymn? No, 
well we will ^ive you one, Whip tli.' ojc devil round 
the stump.' As they sang thry acted the word.-j. We 
pftrttd with mutual gcxKl wishes, the mistres.s re- 
marking, after they left, that Ood spoke in divers 
ways and their presentation of His trutlm, llumgh 
rnde and wild to up, douhtless siiiteil the frontier 
population among wlioni they lia>l lived and did 
g^od. "The ax hefore the plow, the ux-ilnig Iwfore 
the smoothing harrow,' added the nioitter. 

On Jahi-z ti|ipeiiring next inoniing he had six hags 



10 ;:■- I- 




1-4 IIIIII.6 



Thi' Siirrntiv*' of 

of potatoes on the ox-sled, wliicli were IV.r see.l us 
well ns eating, and said he hud left u Inu.l of pine- 
boards to he hauled through tlie hush to Hcor the 
shanties. They now had to whut kind of 
shanty they wanted. The, he told us, for 
all, men, women, and children, had guthered to hear 
about the building,— was u house twelve feet by 
twelve, with bas,swoo.l staves for Hooring or tlie 
bare .soil, an opening that served both as door and 
window, with a blanket to keep nut the cold. 
wood scoops or elm bark for the roof, in which a 
hole was left to let out the smoke. There were 
many such shanties, but living in them was misery. 
From that .sort they varied in size and finish, all 
depending on the settler's means. With S2.5 a go<.d 
deal could be done Size and tinisli were agreed on, 
it being understood the master, who ha,l most money, 
would have a larger house. This being decided, Mr 
Brodie set to w..rk to dig Ins cellar and I was sent 
to Simmins to see if he could supply sliingles for 
the three shanties and to ask Sal if he wouhl hire 
until they were finished. I took the compass and 
found their cleuianee without trouble. In return- 
ing Sal, wild carried his a.\e, blazed the trees, so 
that it wonld be easy to know the way. The fol- 
lowing morning his mother accompanied ,SaI. .She 
came to show liow they made breail in the bush, 
and had brought a dishful of bran-risings. E.'i- 
plaining what yeast was and how to treat it, slie 
set a panful of dough. When the mass had risen, 
she kneaded it, and moulded it into loave.s. The 

fiunlon .Sf//;*r 

bake kcttlu linvinf,' Keen wnrmul tin- Idaves wen- 
pliice.l in it, anil when they hn.l risen enougli. she 
pnt the CDVcr on, anil phinteii the kettle in a led 
of {{lowins embers. The brca.l was swec-t an.l a 
welcome chan^je to the cakes ma.le on the ;rri.l.lie 
or frying-pan. We hail more than breail that ilay. 
Mrs Simniins pointed ont plants, like lambs <|uarter 
anil ilunilelion, whose leaves made f^reens that B,!d- 
cil relish to our unvarying diet of pork. How much 
more she taught I do not know, but he.' visit was 
a revelation to our women-folk. Grannie was de- 
lighted with her singing because she could hear it. 


Ibfi Narrative of 

Chaiter VII, 


In Scotland it had beon th'' master's custom to 
keep a record of work done, and ot* money paid or 
received. On purtinj- witlt a neijjlibor, ii farmer 
wJio had a notion of (Mui<{rntiniT, he was asked, as a 
favor, to keep notes of liis uwn daily expt-rience. 
He had lii<i doubts as to accounts of Canada lie had 
read being correct, and knew whatever the master 
set down as to climate and other conditions he could 
depend upon. The book in which these notes were 
made was nevur sent, the master having learnt his 
friend had taken a new tack of his farm From 
this journal I will now ijuote. 

Jun^' 21. — Rushing work in getting up the shan- 
ties. Four men felling trees and sawing their 
trunks into the desired length. Awkwanl in chop- 
ping, I took the job of squaring the logs with the 
m<lze-ax. Oordon notched t!ie ends as I finished 
them. Digging his celhir Rrodie .struck chiy, which 
Jabez tells me is worth money to us. Under Ailie's 
direction, the children planted potatoes round the 
stumps of the trees as they were cut ditwn, and 
made a garden on a hare strip of land on the pond 

(lonlim Sellar 


bank. Have j-ct, all tlie boarJs drawn fruiu Yonge- 
street. Slow-work with an ox-sk-d, liavinK to dodge 
to avoid strikino; trees, 

June 22.— J,ihez helped Brodie to finish his cellar, 
lining it with red-ccdar poles. (Jreat heat. O-ea 
drawing logs for the shanty. 

June 2;).— Began raising today. Jahez. never at 
a in finding the eu.siest way, had left standing 
two trees at the site of the house. Placing a stout 
pole in thWr cn.tches, long enough to reach across 
from one to the other, he attached a pulley. An 
ox, hitclje.1 to the end of the pulley-rope, l,;,„led 
the logs to the spot and pulled them up ,is neede,!. 
This .-uved nmcli lifting an,l the walls went up 
quickly, (lordon had n,)tched the en. Is of the logs 
so exactly that they went together without 
June 24— Have got Brodie's house up to the 
square and began putting up the rafters. Cloudy; 
heat more bearable. 

June 2.5— Saturday; eager .,) get the shanty fin- 
ished all hands turned to the work, got the shing- 
ling finished and the grrand Hoor laid. .Mrs Brodie 
moved in at dark. Though there was neither door 
nor windows in place, she said she was prouder of 
her shanty than the Duchess of Hamilton could be 
of her palace. 

June 2«— The beat of tins country surpa-ses any- 
thing we ever knew in Scotlun.l. All very tired 
and glad to rest in the shade, with a smudge to 
keep ofl' the mosquitoes. Strange to say, the chil- 
dren do not .seem to care much about the heat. 


'Hit' Siirrutivc nt 

Junr '.i?— JiiLfz un-ivL-il with ti wa^fun luiult;il with 
IuuiImt. Di-L'W on slt'il rirst thu liimrs urnl stishe-*, 
wliich ho hiul jfot ii carpeiitt'i- to iiiako Utr Hni'lii-'s 
house, wliich (idnhm titti-il in At'ienmon hfin;,M\t't, 
Wf hi;I|)eil in hiy the luft floor rtiid to chink the 
huusi! Iroia the insi.le. (J.mlon put up two wi. it- 
shelves in the corners i'or hcils, anil is niiikii;i( u 
tahh' with hehches u\\ each siile to sit on, The taMe 
has crossetl k'jrs; the ht-nches Iiave no hacks. 

June 2.S— Kverythini,' l-cin^ n-a-ly. h.-;,'an on my 

June 29— Ma<le ^rui..l imiL^ress, for we have heen 
j^uinin^' experience. 

July I — 'Pile root' hein;,'<jn. niovivl into our j-haiity; 
well we did, for it poured at ni^dit. 

July 2 -Had rt lon^^ talk ahout chimneys for our 
houses. The rif,dit way is to have a mason huild 
tlieai. There may he stonjs on our land, hut there 
are none in sij^lit Jahez says wo will have t<> put 
up with stick chimneys. In the hot weiUher we are 
haviiif,r, coi.Iving out of (h)ors i'^ al! ri-jht unle-s when 
it rains, 

July ;J— The Sahhrith rest heiieath mir <.wn rutif 
Was sweet. Mary plea>ed ari-l happy and mother 
proud of the house. 

July 4— L"avin^' to (iordoii the rinisliinmr of our 
shanty, the rest of us tackled witli mipjlit and main 
Auld's. H(Hv quickly Jahe/. and Sal can hew down 
a tree is a wonder to mi'. 

July 5 — Auld moved his helonL,diij^s into his shanty 
this evenin;^, though it is not half done. (Jave Jahez 

tinrftitii Sfllj^r 


iJM.iu.y t.. I.iiiijr „ut with liiiii nil Mun.luy i„.„nini; 
the ir.>ii-Hxtiiri's for cur Hrf-plaois „ii.l t\w \mw u"r 
the chimnt-ys. 

July U— On ^r,,i„j, „„t t)||„ |,„„.„j,|j, ^„„. ,j ,|^,p|. 
with h,r liin.l ilrinkini; iit the fur en, I nf the pcnil; 
lii-iiiitilul ciTKturey. Thank (;,„1 f„r t)i,- Sahhuth.' 
Witlir.ut it w,. wcuhl have hri.ken .l„wn witli ,.ur 
hanl toil. 

July 7— Jahez l.i-nn^ht w.M-,1 fi-oMi .Mr )!aii,hray 
that ho want.'.! ii« .,ii the lltli l<> ;rive lis our .h' 
'I'c.hl 111.' h.-coul.l not Hnish out a month, as he hail 
expecte.l. Business ha,l heeonie liri-k in •|oroiito, 
an.l liis hrothers needed liis lielp. H,- st.irted at 
once to l.uihl the ehininey in Broilie's hou.-e, so that 
wecnii.l see how t.. ,lo the otl,er two. In laying 

""^^ " ■ " '!•*■'"" "i""!-'' 1""1 heen hilt uncovered 

tor tlie tire-|.laee. In a frame of heavy elm h,cr» 
that titled the spot, pud.lled chiy mixed with .sand 
was rann.ied liard. Two Jaml.s were huilt with 
hriok whieli daluz had hroueht and aeross them a 
thick plate of cast iron, wliich was to support the 
front of the chimney. The hack of the chimney 
and si.les had the few .stones found in diiiKinfr tlie 
cellars, and on top of them wtt.s laid more hrick until 
the ceiling' was reached. Care had heen taken >,, 
huihl in a crane to hung poLs. From the Hoor of 
the loft squarely cut pieces of cedar, 2 i nches thick, 
were laid in clay mortar, and as the work went on 
were plastered with the same mortar insiile and out, 
antil the top was two feet ahove the ridge-hoard. 
Jaljez .said there was no danger of the cedar sticks 


The Nnrrntive of 

takinj; tire. They were so wcll-beded in the clay 
that when it harliried the chimney was hII ime piece. 
If it full, it would not break. 

July U— Brodic, Auld, and myself uecoinpanied 
Jaliez on his going to Toronto. Mr Banihray had 
arranged everything and in an hour we had paid 
him and eacli of us liad his deed. We asked liiin 
about securing a road to our lots. He said two 
blocks of hush lay between them and Yongestreet 
Both were owned by a man who was iiolding to sell, 
and he was afraid any influence we could exert 
would not compel him to make the road, tliough that 
was the condition on which the government had 
given the land. Met in the tavern several emigranta 
eager to get lots, all discontented witli their treat- 
ment at the government office. One saiil he would 
go to Illinois. Asked how he would get there. Told 
me by Buffalo and Erie: land sold there at 
$1.25 an acre and no bush to clear. 

July 12— Tired and rainy. Auld and Brodie came 
over to square our accounts. From the tiir]e we left 
the ship till we got into our shanties, we lived in 
common. Found Broilie had least money and more 
mouths to till. His wife said she did not fear — they 
would strachle through uii..l they got a crop. We 
had a long talk about getting a yoke of oxen, which 
we must have. Offered, if I got them, they would 
pay me in days' work. I decided to put up a stable 
to be ready when I bought a yoke. 

July 13 — Took a tramp to see rear of my lot, 
Gordon guiding with a compaas. All of a sudden 

ilordou Sflliir 

the l,usl, crosul, ami on finding I .stood on the idge 
of a swamp, I got angry at my Uing fooled into 
paying for h cattuil innrsh. There is r|uite h strc tch. 
not very wide, angling across the width of my lot" 
On thinking it over, am ,-atisfied Band.ray knew no 
more about its existence than I did. Keturning home 
I followed the creek, which .-tarts from it. Tlicr* 
was a little water Hewing. Noticed, where the creek 
leaves the marsh, a stretch of tall wild grass. 

July l+-Couhl not sleep thinking al.oiit the 
swamp. Got Onrdon to make a dozen cross-stafi 
and started for it to take levels. Found the mar^h 
sloped towards the creek, and between where it en- 
tered and a hundred yards down the creek there ig 
a fall of three feet, so the n.arsh can be drained 
Dug down in several places and found the nmrsli to 
be a ileposit of black .soil on top of clay, 

July 17— The Simmins family .spent the ofternoon 
with us. He knew aUmt the swamp, and called it a 
beaver-meadow. The grass that grew at the bead 
of the creek would make liay goo<i ent.u^h for cattle. 
Sai<l I would Hnd the <lam the leavers ha 1 made if 
1 searched a while, and if I g„t „„t the lo,-s that 
formed it, the water would have a free cuur"e into 
the creek. 

July 18— Spent all Saturday cutting grass at the 
head of the creek. It is Hue but long. Turned it 
to<l«y and, if rain keeps off, will be ready to cock 
tomorrow afternoon, the sun is so hot and the grass 
so ripe. 

July 19-Had Sai, Gordon, and Archie come ud 


Tht* \iirriiti\'f' nl 

liL'lp til tiii'l tho .lam the Umvit^ Im.l tmill On a 
crDwliiir ^lnjwini; U-* wlion? the ln;;s wen- hurif.l' 
shovelli'.l .ill' tl. ilirl iinil pri.jil thi-iii ..m. It whh 
wet, I'irty wuri. iillt we inuiiii^'e'l it Cleaieil the 
l.c.l (if the creek "( the rulilriih tliilt clmkeil it ut 
it« hettii. Sill t'ouilil II turtle, which I e eiirrieil hmiie. 

July 20— Brii.lie iiiiil Aulil ciime early ami we set 
til work to «et li«i reai.y fur the ii\->l;iMe Very 
ilry anil Imt. 

July 21 — I'ileil the hay in two ^tacki ami thuteh- 
eil them as well as we eiiuM. We liiul just Hni^heil 
when a thuuilei-stniiu liurst, 

July 2:1— (iiinluii, wliii lii- nuele furniture fur all 
the liiiuMes, set up a cuplmaril fur Ailie, of which she 
is ipiite prouil. The lail has a wiimlerful kuack, 
can copy anything he lias a cliuuce to examine, A 
ilelu^e of rain; never saw such a ilownfall in Scot- 
lanil. Lasteil six hours auil tlien came out sulti-y. 

July 24 — Sal steppeil in while we were at l.reak- 
fast with the liinil quarter of a ileer, his fatlier hail 
come on ilurinj; the heavy rain ami shot. First 
fresh meat we have hail, Kouml it ilry eating'. Sun- 
day though it was, walkeil with Sal to heail of 
creek anil founil water was running freely into it 
from the marsh. Coming hack Sal spie.l laes numl 
a tree anil saiil he woulJ get the honey next month. 
ToKl me the names of the ilirterent sijuirrels anil 
hirils we S5aw and he had fun with a ground hog. 

July 'A\} — Although the weather has heen warm 
have worked steadily chopping down trees; the 
sound of the axe coming from the three lots. On 

ilortlftj, , 'Hlitr 


(»ch I.,' tliiMTi tliun- iM tinw ,,„it,. « cl.iinuico. Jul*./ 
haii ,lM.wn m ' r.v t.i mnh,- i,l«ri-li.H|,s. ni„| „■.■ m, 
fell til.- tiws, %.liici. will s«v,. Iiunl w.irk wli.-n we 
coiiu- t.> liurn. KiKvpt mywlf, «|1 „„. ^Ktinj, t,) U- 
.■xpiTt with 1.1,' nil., thiMi^h Siil, with l,.ss ..rerticri, 
can cli..|i ,!,,wii tw.j to Alliin'a oiii'. 

August 1— Ornwtli far nul^iiii,. that ..f Sc.itlali.l, 
anil iKi w„ri,I.T, thiTe i>. n.) such hmt tliLTiv In 
tlilMiini; turnips an<l tin. lik,. Ailir |.i.|,t what 'n 
pulli'il r.,r l.nilirif,': they make Kuiid ^rre,•ns. \\v hafi 
n l..n- talk al.,iit l.iiyin;{ a yuku of „xf„ at once, 
ari.i Bro.lie an.l AiiM agree,! to help me with thn 
stahlc. for them. 

August 3-Kixe.l on spot for stahk- ami hefjan 
preparing logs for it, cedar an.l pine as 
Wing easier to hamlle. 

August S—Began raising stahle. (lonlon made 
very neat corners. 

August 9-lIa.l stal.le up to the s,,uare when we 
dropped work. 

August II— (lot fic rafters on. Having no saw- 
e.l luniher or shingles, will have to cut basswood 
staves and scoops. 

August 13— Stable Hnished and all pnmd of it. 
There is a roomy loft which will be u.scful for nnre 
than fodder, for I am told when there is no bed in 
the shanty for a visitor the; 'loft him.' 

August U— Had arranged to to Toronto, for 
none of r... have been inside a church since wc left 
Scotland, b' the sun came out with such a blister- 
ing heat that we ha,l to give up our intention. It is 


Tlif .V/irrnrJt*' 

awfully loni'iijiiie in llir l.usli an I win' it nut fur 
tlif wink ynii lire fcircf.l to iln wc wouM gyi vniwit- 
niiii.lrd. It Im^ I'l'on ii ^nviit MfSHini; in t'v. ry wiy 
tlmt till' three fulililii-.s s.'tlleil tii;;ither I eiiil Li'lii'Vc 
tilt' ri'|nirt tliiit a t'uniily (liuhti'il in the i|<'|itlis ni' the 
I'Uili, withont n nci^hhur neurir than three miles, 
nhaliiliiru'il all they hail iiceoinplisheil tn ;,'rt conifiany. 
Aiii-nMt ir.—Wliili' chinkin;; the stal.le, (Jnrlun 
hel|iin),'. 1 hearil a cra»h ami a cry from where Allan 
wa» ch<i|i|iinK. We ran ti. the simt, ami my heart 
jum|ieil into my month, when 1 saw him lyin;; a-- if 
he were ileail nniler a hin hraneh. I was for drag- 
jjinj; him nut, when (ionlon showeil me the move- 
ment woulil hrin;; down the Imtt of the hraneh on 
liiM holly. He ran for help Ailie eatne lir-t and 
then Br.Hlie, and while the three of u-i held up the 
limh of the tree, Ailie pulled him out. .She was 
calmer than any of us. Carryin),' him to the house, 
we had the satisfaction of tindinj^ there was no hone 
hroken. A hlue mark ahove the right eye showeii 
where he had heen struck. As he was hreathing 
easily we had hopes he would come to, hut it was 
long hefore he did, and it \va.s the most anxious 
hour Ailie and 1 had ever known. When he open- 
ed his eyes, and lookin;,' wonderingly rouu'l a.sked, 
'What i.s a' the steer ahoot^' we never hefore thank- 
ed (iod with such fervor, (loriion had run for Mrs 
Simmins, and while we were keepino wet cloths on 
Allan's head, she hurried in. Looking,' at the mark, 
which was now swollen, and feeling all rouml it, 
Mrs Sinwuins declared tliere was no fracture of the 

kull iiikI tliHt tiir l.liiw liHil uiily suinni'.l hu,, 
Wfll I'or liirii ilint )>v ii a ihiclilu-ii'li'il Sciti'liiiiiii 

i.r 111- w.Mil.l Imvi' I n kill.'.l.' «..ti irk.'.l, T.ik- 

ill),' 11 fli'iiiii I'rniii h.T |H>cki.|. «hc IjirioiM tli.. Iiiiii|i 
aii.l l.'t it 1>1m.,I freely. 'If l.riiiscl l,|,x„l i, |,.ft t,, 
(.'ft int.! the sy.HtfIn, tli. ■ will li^ il ffViT, in wliicli 
many n iimii Ims di..! ' .vi|„n M\ H,|,.,.p „ii,| wluii 
111' w.iki- it WB,« t" «»;< lor 11 ilriiik 

Aug lt;_ Mian w.iki- thi« niMrhiri'jull ri:.'lit, i-XLvpt 
ftilinj; Ki'l'l; llf will iiiviT ii;,mili Imn' ii' narnm- 
1111 iscupi- With Ills lif... Till, tri'i' h.. wus tVlliii;., a 
I'iK iimiili', ill fallin;; t(i|i|ilcil mi-ra .I..M.1 true li..»i,l,- it, 
wliidi Wll^ »o rntli'ii that it fill in a sliiiw.ri .' piiwi. 
Ailtf, IN. -Wi-iit til SIT till' KWaiiip ami ;.|a.l t.i 
tiiiil it will ilriiT Thi' Will ■ liai ({.it vi>nt an.l is 
s.i'Iiin:,' iiiti. till- iT.'ik. ( M walk on parts that 
wouM iiiit carry liifcri'. L.iukv.l it .nur tii phiii how 
t" ilraiii it. (Icrili.Ti, who was with mv. .sai.l, Cut a 
liitrh up till- diitiv. I showi-.l him that «•. -iM nut 
ilo wh™ the .-wanip niine to hi- pl.iweil. 'I .-i-rlit 
way was to cut a .litch across tin.' hea.l an.l vii it 
ftnpty iut.i anollii-r aloii); the s.iuth si.ln to the civck. 
I..ookc.l at ni.' Ill as In- askcl if I cv.i- cx- 
pectcii topl.iw it. .Sai.l I wouM ffrow Ki-ain on it 
h<-IWt other tliiv.- y.-ars. On rcturnlM^; h,- and I 
ili.l a hit of un.lirl.rushiiii;, pili,,^, m unluh of (he 
hrush n.s we coul.l loiin.l the IVlh.l timher to help to 
burn it. 

Autr. 19— umhrhnishin:; all .lay, 
Auf;. 20— .S J hot i,'avi. the ax a rest. In the after- 
noon a thunilersti.nii. The i|owni>our tested the roof 

,;i , 

The S.%tratire of 

of the stable, whicli leaked in only one place, whore 
a scuup had split. 

Aug. 21 — Quite cool with a brisk northerly breeze. 
Wife and my.seU' started for Toronto, and never en- 
joyed a walk more. Did us good to watch the clear- 
ances as we passed along. Fail wlieat all cut and 
stacked. Barley being cra<lled and oats looking 
extra heavy though short in the straw. Tli-^ sight 
of gardens and patches of potatt)us pleased Ailie, 
and we both were surprised by the Indian corn, 
which wo nev< - saw before. It was tasseling. The 
bell was ringing when we readied Toronto and had 
to ask our way to the Presbyterian church The 
crowd was going to the Episcopal and Methodist 
churches. The service was dry and cold, but it did 
us iK)th good to worship with our fellows once more 
and join in the psalms. As we were walking away 
I heard somebody behind us c. ;i, Andrew Anderson, 
and looking back saw Mrs Bambray. Told her we 
were going to the tavern for dinner. 'Thee shall go 
to no tavern on the seventh day,' and slipping her 
arm into my wife's, led us to her house. Pointing 
to a door she told me to go in and I would see what 
I never saw in Scotland, and led my wife upstairs. 
Opening the door I found myself in a backshed, 
with Bambray rubbing ointment on a negro's arm. 
The man was a runaway slave and had arrived that 
morning on a schooner from Oswego. Bambray had 
washed him and dressed him in clean overalls, he 
bade the negro pull off his shirt so that I might see 
the marks of the welts made by a whipping he had 

fitinlon Sfllar 

got witli a l.lacksnakc whip and Lis master's brand, 
made with a hot iron, on his right arm. The left 
arm had gut injured in his flight and had an un- 
liealed wonnd. The poor fellow said he came from 
Maryland and had known no trouhle until his wife 
had been taken from him and sold. His master 
ordered him to pick on another woman, but he 
loved his wife and ran away to tind her: had been 
caught and whipperl to within an inch of his life. 
Hearing slave.s were free in Canada, he took the 
first chance to slip away. He hid during the day, 
and at night, guided by the plow in the sky, kept 
northward.s. He got some food by visiting negro 
huts, ami at one of these he was told how a band 
of white people helped negroes seeking their liberty. 
Finding a house lie was directed to cull at, he found 
it was true. The man fed bin, and ferried him 
across a river and gave him the lan.lmarks of the 
next house he was to call at for help, and from one to 
another he was passed along until he got to Oswego, 
where he was hi.l in the bobi of a schooner whose 
capUin was an Englishman. It bad taken him a 
long time to make the journey, he could not tell me 
how long, for he did not know the days of the week 
much less the months. On getting to Toronto he 
was guided by a sail.r boy to Bambrays house, 
which was one of several where runaways were 
sure of help. Asked Bambray what he wo.dd do 
with the man. When tit for work he would be 
given an ax, saw, and sawborse and was sure of 
earning a living. 'Me strong,' sni.i the man, stand- 


TliH Snrrative of 

'I . 

I: (' 

ing up, 'mul me free.' Lett Bambray's Ute in the 
afternoon antl got home before sunset. 

Aug. 27 — A week of steady work chopping. We 
must get clearances big enough to raise crops for 
next year's living no matter liow hot the days are. 

Aug. as — The Simmins family spent the day with 
us. They leave for the lake Simcoe country. All 
three like the free life of fishing, trapping, and 
hunting, and spoke as it they were going on a holi- 
day. If they did well anil got a big pack of furs, 
they intend in the spring to try Illinois, so we 
may not niuet again. They sang and talked all day 
and we parted with sorrow. The days are still hot 
but the nights are cool with heavy dew.s. 

Aug. 30 — Eiich day hard at work felling trees. 
When I first saw our lot and how thick the trees 
stood on it I could hardly believe it possible we 
could clear the land of them, yet we have been here 
scarce three months and there is a great slash. Tak- 
ing the trees one by one and perseverance has done 
it Burning the felled trees that cumber the ground 
is the next undertaking. This cutting out a home 
from the bush is work tliat exhausts body and mind, 
but the reward is what makes life sweet to right- 
minded people — independence. 

September 1 — Hail new potatoes to-day. They 
are dry and mealy and abundant in yield. I may 
say this is the first food the land has given us. 

Sept. 2 — Had a chance to send a notu to Jabez to 
look out a suitable yoke of oxen. On going to 
Yonge-street found a long building going up. It is 

(innlfm Splhtr 

B Uverii. The street is liiieil with them all the way 
to Toronto antl how far north they go cannot say. 
Being the leading outlet there is much traffic on it. 
Saw several parties of emigrants pass. Impniilent 
to come so late in the season. They will have their 
sufferings when winter sets in tor they have not 
time to prepare for it. E.iperience has shown me 
cnjigrants sliuuld come early in spring. I spoke 
with one lot. They .sailed from Liverpool to New 
York and thence by the Erie canal to Oswego, avoid- 
ing the ordeal of the St Lawrence rapids. It seems 
strange but it is .so, the Unite<l States is Upper 
Canada's market. In comparison, little freight either 
goes or comes by Montreal. This ought not to be. 
The reason given is, that Lower Canada wiil not 
help to improve the St Lawrence route as it would 
not be to her benetit. 

Sept. .5 — There is a plague of squirrels — black, red 
and grey. Kobby keeps killing them and we have 
them on the table every day. Pushing the chopping, 
for our next year's living depends on the size of our 
clearances. VVeother being cooler, work not so ex- 
hausting. Had a scare yesterday from a bear trot- 
ting to the pond. It liad its drink and tied on 
.seeing us. 

Sept. 9 — Had word from Jabez to come to town 
as he had a yoke of oxen bought for me. 

Sept. 10— Walked to Toronto, taking Gordon to 
help. Am no judge of oxen. They cost $60. Be- 
sides them had to pay for logging-chain and an oi- 
sled. Gordon spent the time in the wheelwright's 


The Xurrtitive of 


shop where I bought the sled. On Jabez telling me 
we would need somebody to teach us how to handle 
oxen and to burn a fallow, 1 went to see Sloot, and 
bargained wit.i him for a week's work. On getting 
all that was needed for my neighbors and myself 
the sled was heaped up; we walked, Sloot driv- 
ing. It was near midnight when wo reached home, 
but Ailie and the family got up to see the oien by 

Sept 11 — Sunday though it was, Sloot, taking the 
boys to clear the way, had to go to the stacks near 
the swamp for hay to feed the oxen. It wa.s a work 
of necessity. They came back in the afternoon with 
a small load, for the track was roufr'", 

Sept 12 — Sloot and all hands were up at sunrise 
to set lire to the brushpiles. The day was cool with 
a breeze that helped the fires. Burning the logs was 
next taken in iiand, and being green and thick they 
were slow to burn. 

Sept. 13 — The weather was again favorable for 
our work of burning the logs but, despite a strong 
wind, they burned slowly and wc had to keep pok- 
ing and turning them to get a hot bloze. The smoka 
and heat were like to overcome me, but Sloot went 
ahead. He was born in the bush and all its work 
is second nature to him. Washed in the pond and 
got to bed late. 

Sept. 14— Auld and Sloot, Allan helping, worked 
all night with the logheaps, which I found ;his 
morning much reduced in size. The logging-chains 
and the oxen today came into play, the partly con- 

(lonjun Si^llnr 

sumeil logs heing hauled to form fresli piles. By 
dark there was quite a clearance. 

Sept 15-Light white frost this morning. Help- 
ing neighbors. Sun came out on our starting to bum 
at Auld's but the wind blew a gule, and we had a 
spleniiid burn. 

Sept, 16— Pouring rain and glud of it, for all of 
us except Sloot arc dead-tired. He says the rain 
will wash the charred logs and make them easier 
to handle. 

Sept, 17— Spent the day hauling the biggest of 
the partly burned logs to make a fence the 
clearing. The smaller stuff we heaped up and set 
on tire. Allan handles the oxen very well consider- 
ing. Wanted Sloot to stay another week, but he 
could not. He is a civil fellow and not greedy, 
.*,die sent a queer present to his wife. Before Mrs 
Simmins left she explained and showed how to se- 
cure and dry dandelion roots to make coffee. In 
lifting potatoes, when a dandelion root is seen, it is 
pulle<l carefully, or, if scarce among potatoes, dug up 
carefully in the fall so as to get the entire root. 
The roots are washed, dried in the sun anil stored 
away. As wanted for use, a root or so is chopped 
small, roasted in a pan until crisp, then ground, and 
made like ordinary coffee. 

Sept 21— All week we worked at getting crop 
into the fallow. After clearing it of sticks, we used 
spade, grape, mh rake to get it something near 
level, Gordon studded a log with wooden spikes 
which we dragged over the worst of it On getting 


Thf SHrnitivi* of 

1 1 5 


the best seedbeil possible, sowed wheat. The wiil 
had a topdre^sing of charcoal cinders and ashes that 
I thought would help. If the seed gives an aver- 
age yield, will not have to buy Hour next year. 

.Sept. 26 — Kaineil all ilay yesterday; at night clear- 
ed with ciuite a touch of frost. Busy chopping to 
enlarge clearance. The young fellow who came out 
•with us from Scotland and got drunk at Montreal, 
appeared at our door this morning. He had lived 
chiefly in Toronto and his appearance showed had 
done no good. Wanted a job. Agreed with him to 
dig litch in the swamp, the understanding being if 
he got drunk he need not come back. Leaves are 
"turning color. 

Oct. 2 — Sat most of the day on front step taking 
in the beauty of the trees that overhang the pond 
on three of its sides. I can compare them to noth- 
ing but gigantic flowers. Steeped in the ha7.e of a 
iriellow sun the sight was soothing. Xothinf like 
this in Scotland. The birds have gone; the swallows 
left in August. 

Oct. 9 — Been a sorrowful week. On unpacking 
our baggage on arrival in the bush, found my 
mother's spiii dng-wheel was broken. Gordon man- 
aged to mend it and I bought ten pounds of wool. 
This she washed, tfased, and carded, and proud she 
was when she sat down and began to spin the rolls 
into yarn. Tuesday afternoon Ailie and Ruth went 
to pick wild grapes, and the rest of us were at our 
work in the bush. Grannie was left alone. She had 
'moved her wheel to the door to sit in the sunshine, 

Ilonlon St>llii. 

where slie coulJ see the brightness of tlic trees and 
enjoy the calm that pri'\aileii. How Ion); she spun 
We ilo not know. On Ailie's return she wus sturtleii 
nt the sight of her liending over the wheel. She 
wa.s .lead. While stooping to join a l>rolcen tliroad 
(Jod took her. Next day buried her on a rising bit 
of grounil overlooking the pond. What :i mother 
she was I alone can know. I shall never forget her. 
Ijist evening there was to us a marvellous display 
of northern lights. When daylight failed pink 
clouds appeared in the sky mixed with long .shoot- 
ing rays of white light. The clouds changed shape 
continually, but the color was always a shaile of 
red. At ti'ues the clouds tillc.l the entire north- 
eastern sky. 

Oct 10— Crying need fur rain; everything dry as 
tinder: air fidl of smoke. 

Oct. 13— My worker at the ditch insisted he had 
to go to Toronto, (iave him his pay and knew he 
would not come back, despite his promise. There 
are more slaves than black men. The man of whom 
whiskey has got a grip is the greater slave. 

f)ct 17 — (,'losed the house on Sunday morning 
anil all walked to Toronto to attend worship. To- 
day yoked the sled to an ox. t< r our path to Yonge- 
strcet is too narrow for two, in order to (ind settlers 
who had produce to sell. Bought corn in cob. apples, 
pumpkins, and vegetables, but only one bag of oats, 
few having thresbed. Was kindly received and 
iearnt much. In one shanty found a shoemaker at 
worl.. He travels from house to house and is paid 

TVic .\/irr.itivp , 




l-y tl„. day, |,i,, finpl„yen. providing tl.e luaterial. 
Agrf..d wul, l,i,„ to ,my us a visit and l.e gave n.e 
a list of wliat to get in Toronto. 

Oct. l8_Spent (lay in trying to make every HiinL' 
snug for winter. 

Oct 19-\Vent U, Toronto dctcrndned to find out 
whether there is no way of compelling the man who 
owns the lan.l that blocks us from Yonge-street to 
open a road. First of all I called upon hin,. a„,l he 
r«eu ed me civilly. J told him how our three fami- 
lies were shut in. Aske.l if we would n,.t huy his 
kt, he would sell the 1200 acres cheap and give us 
time. Answered we could not, we had all w., could 
manage. He thought we were nnieasonahle in ask- 
ing him to make a road which he did not need. It 
would he of use to us but not to him. Asked him 
if the conditions on which the . ,t wus granted did 
not re.(uire him to open a roud? Replied, that was 
like many other laws the legislature made, and 
which were disregarded everywhere in the province. 
When I said, since it is law it could be enforced, he 
smiled and sai.l there was no danger of that. Was 
pleaded t.. hear of our .settlement behind his land 
and hope.l it would help to bring him customers. 
Turning from his door, I made straight for a law- 
yer's office, to make sure whether the owner of 
vacant land coidd not be forced to open a road. The 
lawyer, an oldish man, listened to my story and t. J 
me to give up the idea of compelling the making of 
the road we needed. You are a stranger an<l ignor- 
ant of how matters stand. The law is strai<rht 

Ilonloti Sfillnr 

enduyli, t; ■ t wlu'iiever tlii; ^"ViTniiifnt ({raiila a Int, 
the nceiver must do I -a part tci open u rcmil, l.ut 
the hiw Ims ln'CDnic it deml letter, Two-thircl< nf 
the K"«nte(l liinil is helil \,y men who huve fnvor 
with tlie giiverninent and who Ijoldin;; to sell 
Did yon ever henr of I'eter Riissel? When ii sur- 
veyinf; piirty came in. he found ont from their re- 
ports where the lots of hcst lund were, and niaiio 
ont die.N to hinwelf. 'I, Peter Kii.ssel, lieuiumnt- 
goviM-nor, etc., do frrant to you. Peter Ku.ssel,' such 
anil such lots. If you sue.l the (jentlenian you visit- 
ed this foremjon you wouhl lose. The court oitieinis 
nil huve lots they expect to turn Into money iind 
would throw every ohstucle in tile way. Should 
your case come to trial, it would he hefore a iudj;e 
who is a relative, and who holds p.-.tents for thou- 
sands of acres of wild lanil. The condition in tlieir 
titles ahuiit cutting out road.s, i.s like that re- 
(piire a house to he huilt and so many acres of land 
in crop hefore a patent is i.s.sueil. There are thou- 
sands of settlers worse ott' than you are, for you .say 
you have a sled-path to your house. The lawyer 
•poke canijidly and showed his .sincerity and jjood- 
will by refusing to take the fee I offere<l. 

Oct 20— A real cold day; tine for choppinff and 
the sound of trees falling was heard every hour. 
Wheat is growing I'nsly. Had a talk with Auld 
and Brodie at nighi and agreed we would improve 
the sled-trock to Yonge-street, seeing there was no 
prospect of the owner doing anytlnng. 
Oct. 22— Surprised by a message that there waa 

Till' \jirr»rivf oi 

l| ■ ■ ! 

a lMil|.pl„w waiting for iiif nt the corncr-hou»o tin 
Yongi-Btriet- Jiilii'z ha<\ t..l,| Mr Kanilmiy Hl.„iit 
the Kwaiiip, Htlcl lie sent tlii! plow tu help tii l.rin^f 
it into ciiltiviitioii. 

Oct. 24— Took thf plow out to tliu swamp, wiiich 
I foiinil pntty dry at on.^ »i.le. Yoke.1 tlii^ oxin tu 
it ami I plowed nil afternoon. Felt h<«"I to grip 
tlie stilts once more. 

Oct. 29— .Spent tlire.' duy» on the .sledroad and 
the three I'umile* joined in tlic work. Cut a (jreat 
many root.s Hlled liolluws, and felled trees wliose 
hranche.« c.lpstincted. It is now fairly smooth l.ut 
far too narrow for a wa(;on. 

Oct. 30— Surprised liy a visit from Juliez, who 
came on hor.sel.ack. Said he had a chance to give 
Gordon a few weeks' training with a carpenter Ho 
was not now l.usy himself, as the shipping season 
was o' er. Brought Ailie a Iwsktt of fre.-Ii water 
herring. Left after dinner. 

Oct. ai— Conlon starte.l early for T.jrontc, with 
his l.undle over his shoulder. We shall miss him 
sadly. In the evening our neighbors came and we 
held Halloween as lieartily as if we had l.een in 

Nov. 1— Bright and frosty. Took the o.ten hack 
to the swamp; found there was not frost enough to 
in; rfcre and turned over a few rid,i,'es, and cast 
w icrfnrs leading to the ditch. 

Nov. 2— White frosts fetch rain in this country 
and a cold rain fell all day. Sawing and splitting 
tlie logs we had set aside for Krcwood. 

tiuriltut St'tliir 


Nov. H— Tho rain liiriiwl to «iiciw during thf iiicljt 
and tliiTi' lire fully (our inclits. Thi' jm M;>»tiT« 
hilclicd an iix tci tin- ,«IimI and iitarttil iitf, shoutinK 
anil laucliiny, for YonKL-stroit to have their lirnt 
sleigh drive. Came home in ^{reat gWv in time for 
'Upper. says he want.s n slen;h Udi. 

Nov. 5— Snow );one; clear and line. Chopping 
down trees. 

Nov. 6 — A i»eaceful autunni day. Heard a rohin 
and wondered how it came to he left liehind hy it» 
comrailes. Had a walk S the hu.»li in the afternoon 
thinkinyof mother and the land I shall never forjjet. 
Nov. 7 — Shoenialier arrive"). A yreat talker. Tells 
of families where the children hail to stay in all 
winter for lack of hoots 

Nov. 12 — A week of steady clearinj; of the land; 
we shall have a i;reat hurning in trie sprin;,'. Have 
had hard frost^ .-Very ni(,'ht. <ioin>; ti> VonKe-street 
to see if I could i^et (uUs for the oxen, for the swamp 
hay is not nourishinfr and they are yomi^' an<i ;,'row- 
incr, found provisions remarkahly plenty and cheap, 
especially pork. Harj»ained for a two-year old steer 
which the farmer promised nc.t to kill until .steady 
frost set in. Thankful «e did not „-o farther into 
the hush. It is a hlessing to he near older settlers 
who have a .surplus to sell. There was a smoky haze 
over the hush today, and the sun shone with a suh- 
dued hrightncss; very still with a mellow warmth 
Was told it was the Indian summer. 

Nov. 20 — Had four days r.f Indian summer and 
then a drenching rain from the east, which stopped 


tb^ Surrntivp of 

(i ; 

eh<)ppinf(. A hiack front tulay, dark and lileak. 
Ha'I a letter from Onnlun yeatirday, who Ih tiapny 
in learning !tu much that iit new to him. Hu wai* 
at Baiiibray'fl fur dinner lai^t 8ahl>ath and spent 
an evening at Dunlop*!!. He will niakf friend*! 
wheruvor ho goes. 

December 3— There has been nothing worth set- 
ting down. Have had u long spell of grey, cloudy 
ilays, wiiich jnst suited felling trce^ and under- 
brushing. Have got our patch of wheat well fenced 
in, not to keep cattle out, there are none near um, 
but to help to keep a covering of snow on the 
wheat. Robbie trapped a ciKjn that haunted the 
barn and it made tine eating. He saya the pelt will 
make a neck*wrap for his mother. 

Dec. 7 — Went to get the steer I had bargained 
for. The farmer suggested instead of butchering 
the beast and hauling the carcase it would Ite ea.sier 
to drive it on foot and kill it at home, which I did. 

Dec 8 — Killed the steer, which dressed well. Auld 
and Brodic took away their portions to .salt down, 
but Ailie followed Mrs Bambray's advice. AftT 
the pi'ces are hard frozen she will pack them in 

Dec. 10 — Began to snow gently yesterday anJ 
continues. There ake now about six inches. 

Dec. 11 — Bitterly cold; never felt the like. What 
Burns calls cranreuch cauld geU into the bones, but 
this frost seems to squeeze body and bones, pinch- 
ing and biting the exposed skin. 

Dec, 13 — Ailie is never at a loss. On Mrs Brodie 

Unnhm S'-lfjir 


tellinjr Ihf chittlrfii wnki> nt lUKlit rryiii^ fnmi cuM, 
*)iv )un\ no Miiiiki'tH til ^ivt> her. Ktivin^r shi-ftM wu 
hruH^'lit frniii Sc<ptlan<l nIiu tnuk twi> uii>l pluceil m* 
AM iiisi'lf lining the xkiiis ut' thf Kqiiirn-N Knlihit' 
hH<l killt'<). SiinniiiH Imd tiiii^ht him how tn lun 
iiml ^\\v titfii) H Mott tiiiish. Hnxlii- iui<l AuM'h 
htiui*i'»i iirt- ci>t<l ht-niiis*' tht-y utily liall' chirikt-il 
them. Mrs AnM sui-i the hlunktts w.ri' liD/.-ri 
where thi- hi-'-iith ntruck them uml tht- loaf of hremi 
cuul«i Ih- Miwii iiH if it wt-re a l.Uwk of w»HMi. Both 
now lit'lifVf ('luiafhi'M cohl \h iii»t to he triHcl with 
ami nn.' scnipin;; iuush oH" tliu trt'i-s t'l cuiilk hftwct-n 
the uutsiiU' lojrs thf tir^t warm spell. 

Dtc. U -Tlif frost hnl<l.-<. Wurkeil ull iliiy with 
A)!tin. Does not fi-fl coM in the The trees 
hretik thi- winii tlmt i.s .so piercinj^ in the clearinj^s. 

I)ee. |.'> — Milder; in tlie sun nt inxm almost wiinii. 
Got out ox-s*leil iiM't wiiit witii Hi"'lu- ulon^' Vonj^'e- 
street to Imy pork. Bouijlit thr»i- - nn-v^. P-oplf 
nre kin<lly. Muve ne^'rr ctille*! at a huusf .n-re 
we wen- nut inviteii to return iiu'l pay a tamily visit. 

Dec. I'l— Hiive hail a three ilay snaj-. of frost. 
KitltL-r ^'ettiny u.seil tu the cuhl or are ailaptin^' our- 
selvtM to tiiett it. for lio net feel the iliscomfurt we 
ilii.1. Ruth i^ian;; tu the o.^-stahle vvitliuut puttinif 
a wrap over lier h,'iiil ^ot her cheeks ami ear-* 
frozen. KoM>ij trapped a iianv IMeads for a ifun. 
Ailie will ;^ive him a surpri--f Xew Year's morning. 

Dec. 24-— The snow helps t^reiitly in hauliM<j fallen 
trees ami loi^s. Uive them their own time, ami 
oxen heat horses in hamllinjj difficult loads, (iordon 


1 hr S >r.-itivp (it 


came wiilkinjij in this jifttrnuon, (juite unespecti'<lly, 
for \\v dill not look for liiin until this day wuek. 
He stiys Christinas is the bi«( ilay in Toronto, and 
not N(!W Year's chiy. His master had shut his sliop 
for a wi'L'k. Ho j:jave him n det-rskin Jerkin ii> a. 
Christiiuvs present. 

Dec. 27 — Gt)r"l(iE has heen husy making snow- 
shoes. His Hrst pair was for Unth, wlio can now 
walk in tluin, Snowed al' day; not cold. Hr has 
tautflit her to ride one of '.he oxen. 

Def. 28 — A thaw, much needed to settle the snow, 
whicli was iicttin*,^ too deep. Younj^sters shuvflhd 
a strip OH tlie pond and made a tine slidf. 

Dec. ;U — Made preparation to keep Ho:jmantiy, in- 
viting; our two neii^hhors. Had laiilt a hh^ Hre, witli 
a heech hack-lo^', so heavy that an ox had to haul 
it to the door, an<l put a smaller one on top, while 
in front Njilit wood l)Iazt'd, and made the shanty >o 
liijlit tliat no candle was needed. The youn^,^ lolk 
liad a ^reat nij»ht of it, and hraved the frost to go 
to liif stahlu door and sin^ their old Hof^manny 
rt yni's. Tlie feast was plain as plain t-ould ht\ hut 
tonitriti'd and merry hearts care not for dainties. 

.hiuuary 1, 1826 — All j^athi'red again in our shanty 
after dnuier, when wo hatl a fellowship meetinf; to 
thank God for all his mercies, and surely, wdien I 
review all the dangers he has led us through, and 
the mercies lie has bestowed on us during the year 
that lias gone, we have good cause to adore him. 
Gave Star and Bright an extra fee<l of oats. 

Jany. 2 — Ailie had just sat down after clearing 

(iorilint Sflhir 

tlif- dinner dishes away, when Ruth caine running 
in crying' she lieiird sleighbells coming up our road. 
I went out and was astonislied when a sleigh came 
in siglit, the Iiorse dashing the snow into powder 
l)reast high. It was Mr Duniop and his wife, who 
liad come to pay us a New Year's call. They stayed 
an hour and it was a happy one, for Mr Duniop is a 
heartp(»me man. Was greatly taken with the im- 
provements we had made. His wife brought a pack- 
age of tea for Ailie. She made theru a cup of dan- 
delion coffee which, after their drive, they relished 
with her oatmeal cakes. In parting took me aside 
and told me if I ran slitut of cash to come to him. 
He is a frien*!. After they were gone, Rohhie and 
Allan came home. They had to have a tramp in the 
hush to try the gun their mother ha<l got for Rohhie. 
They hrought in three partridge and two hares, and 
were in great ■■pirits. Uordon had h<aiglit the gun 
from an Englis! Iiiu wlio had come to (unada with 
the notion that it was full of wild beasts and In- 
dians. He found he had no need of it. 

Jaiiy. 4 — Ha\ e had a heavy snowstorm with a gale 
of wind. The snow here is not flaky, but tine and 
powdery, fills the air so you cannot see ahead, and 
sifts llirough every crevice. Thankful when the 
bhist died down. Mrs Auld declares if the summer 
heat and the winter cauM were carded through ane 
anither ('anada would have a grand climate. The 
two extremes are indeed most trying. 

Jany 5 — Work in the bush stopped by tlie snow, 
is so deep that wlieu a tree is felled half is buried. 

Tlift .\':irr;itivf of 

t'HArilil! V'lll. 


Jany 7 — All wore ni lied la-^t aiijiit wlieii I was 
arousi'd hy a knock at the ilour. Tlnnij^ht onu of 
my neij^liliors ni'i'led lit'I[), Imt uii ojieuinj^ was sur- 
prised to see it was Jaliez. Kxcusi-d liiinselt' for 
alarininjjf us l»y sayiuj,' his eiTaml was a matter of 
life or death. A ne^n-o <,nrl, wlio had fallen iuto 
evil hands at Buttiilo, had escaped to Canada and 
was followed hy desperate men trying to retake her. 
An attenijH had heen inii'le to kidnap her front the 
family that sheltered her in Toronto. She had to 
be hid until the search was ;riven up, a»<l he couM 
think of no place so safe as with ourselves. Mr Bam- 
bray asked us, in God's name, to take care of lier 
for a while. 'Wiiere is .she?' 1 asked. 'In the sleigh 
at the door.' I tuid him to fetch her in, or slie 
mijiht freeze. He lifted her in, for she was numb. 
It was a bitter ni;j;ht. Laying aside her wraps, we 
saw, for Ailie and the whole family were now look- 
ing on, a mulatto of perhaps sixteen years of age. 
Alice and Huth chafed her hands and feet to reittore 

flunhili Si'ltur 


lift- circulation, wliilt- Aiiif was "(cttin;; a hot drink 
really. Liiokin^' at tlio pour cliilii I {(Ucsscd licr 
i]ii.«'ralile story ami toM Juliiz wu woul.l keqi luT. 
Al'tfr j;ettin;r wanned lie drove of!'. 

Here I have to Itreak into the master's diary in 
ordei to yive what liafif'ened afterwards, whicli lie 
(lid not write down. The <(irl, who said her name 
was Tilly, ^'ot i|uite reconciled to us nest day. She 
was from Kentucky, had heen sold to a saloon- 
keeper at Black Rock, and rescued. She shuddered 
whenever she spoke of him. Passed from one 
friendly hand to another she reached Toronto, an<l 
was living quietly there as a servant. One evening 
there was a rap at the door and she went to answer. 
On opening it she hehclil the fellow who claimed to 
own her. She screamed. I'utting his hand over her 
mouth he lifted her to a sleigh, which drove otl'. 
Two passershy, wdto saw wliut happened, , ,i after 
the slitigh and on its halting at a tavern, one hur- 
ried off for a constaWe while the otlier kept watch. 
Entering the taveri ley demanded the girl, and 
under threat (if arrt.-L the fellow iiad to let her go. 
If he had not, the crowd in the barroom would have 
piled on to him, for in Toronto Yankee slavehunters 
are detested. Mr Bambray, on being t<dd of what 
had occurred, made her case his own. He consulted 
Jabez who suggested burying her in the bush with 
the master's family until the search was given up. 
Tilly was modest and eager to help, and at worship 


Tlip yarrntive iU 

li 1 s ; ' 

I' t * I 

** . 

whowfd she Iia'l a Iteautit'ul voice. The day passed 
quietly and so did Sunday. The master had meant 
to go to Toj-onto to churcli, heing the first Sunday 
after New Year's day, but the frost was too intense 
for an ox-drive. Tilly had a great collection of 
liymiis, and in t)ie afternoon wc sat and listened. 
It was a peaceful Sabbath and we went to bed 
happy and feeling secure. I was lying awake, 
thinking of the poor slave - girl so unexpectedly 
thrown among us, wlien I thought I heard the 
crunching of the frozen snow under horse's feet 
and slt'iglirunners. 1 jumped out of bed and look- 
ing tlirough tliu window that faced our road, saw a 
sleigh with two men. I hurried down stairs and 
wakened tlie master. He had just got on his feet 
wlien the door was forced in with a crasli. A tall 
fellow entered, whom we could see distinctly, for the 
fire was glowing bright. 'I have come for my nig- 
ger, and it will be worse for you if you make a 
fuss.' Without a word, the master rushed at the 
fellow and was thrusting him out of the door, when 
lie used a trick, doubtless learned in a hundred bar- 
room fights, of thrusting his ft>ot forward and trip- 
ping the ma.ster, who fell on his back. In a tiash 
the fellow had him by the throat, forcing back his 
head with his left hand while his right fumbled 
under his coat. I guessed he was after his bowie- 
knife. I gripped his arm and gave it a twist that 
made him let out a yell. Jumping straight 'ip, he 
made to grab me, when Allan, wlio had just ap- 
peared, swung out his right arm and dealt him a 

f J union Sflhii 

terrific Vilow on th.- face. Ho fell like a tree that 
had got its last cut, The other iiuin now looked in, 
ami seeinjj )iis conirado insensible ami hleeiiing, cried 
out to us, 'You will hang for this:' 'Take the hrute 
away and hej,'one,' shouted tlie master, 'or yon will 
answer for this if there Ijo law in Canaila.' Taking 
liold of the fallen man he drugged him to the sleigh. 
Lifting h'.s head in first, he got into tiie sleigh and 
pulled the rest of the Ixuiy into tha ho.-?. Hurriedly 
pitching a rohe tiver him he drove tiff", afrai'l we 
would arrest him. Just as the sleigh got on to the 
road, there was a shot above our hcad.s, it was 
Kobbie who l.iid loaded his gun and fire<l uut of 
the window. As it was only shot, it probaltly did 
no harm, but showed the driver we had Hrcarms. 
The excitement over, the master staggered to a bench 
and fell down. Examining his throat we saw how 
the feUow had .sfjueezed it so tight that his finger- 
nails had torn the flesh, and the thrust backwards 
had strained the muscles of tlie neck. We got hiia 
into bed and the mistress and Alice sat up all niglit, 
applying cloths wrung out of hot water to ease the 
piercing pain. None of us slept much, and Tilly 
was greatly excited. I :;iiould have mentioned, when 
the affray was over, and I am sure it did not last 
Kve minutes, she went to Allan and kissed the hand 
that had knocked down her persecutor. We talked 
at breakfast over what we should do next, when it 
was agreed I should go to Toronto with word of 
what had happened. Oi reaching Yonge-street I 
got a ride on the first sleigh that came along. Jaboz 


Thp XHrnitive of 



was astounded at my news and took me to m-e Mr 
Bambray and others interested in Tilly. Jabez at 
once started to tind out what h<*d become of the 
fellow, and a 1 ajjreed that nothing should be decided 
until he repo.-ted. He was not lonjj in getting trace of 
him and when he ca;ue in after dinner it was to tell 
the bird had tlown. Fearing arre^st, hi^ face band- 
aged, he hn<l been lifted into a long sleigli, and lying 
in it as a bed, tiud been driven westward. 'He will 
get to Hamilton tliis afternoon," said Jabcz, 'and is 
likely by sunset to be safe on Yankee soil.' It 
was suggested Jabez should go next morning and 
arrange with the mai^ter to keep Tilly for a few 
weeks. 'Will the fellow, who knows now where she 
is, not plan a !=econd attempt?' 'Xo danger,' said 
JaVit 'the doctor who dresse<l his face told ine he 
would not be able to go out for weeks, and was dis- 
tiguved for life. He damned the Scotties who had 
done it.' When Jabez told !iow he had received his 
injuries, tlie doctor, an Englishman, got hotly in- 
dignant. 'Had I known, the fellow would have 
been now in prison.' He wouhl see his friend, the 
Chief Justice, to have him outlawed. I stayed with 
Jabez overnight and our drive in tlie mornnig was 
most enjoyable There was no wind and just frost 
enough to make tlic air crisp, the sun shone on the 
snow until it sparkled, while the sleighing was 
splendid. Jabez had taken one of liis best horses 
and the swiftness of the drive was exiiilarnting. 
The road was crowded with farmers' teams heading 
for Toronto, Jabez knew them all and they all knew 

tittiilttn Si'ltiii- 


One (|uestiun troubk'il liirn. ami tliiit \vii», 
Hiiw the Huft'dlo sconmlrel Imd come to know whtTe 
Tilly was hiil^ To satisfy ii surijiisf, In- ,\nv: up at 
tlie tavern that IiikI been openeil opposite our roail 
to .|Uestiun its owner, who frankly j,'ave the ■Itsired 
infui'ination. Tiie two men stopped at the tavern 
to get warmed and several drinks. One of them 
snid he was looking: for his dau;{hter. who had run 
away from home. He had traced her, he thought, 
by beinc; tohl a man and a young girl had been seen 
driving up Vonge-street Friday night The tavern- 
keeper said he saw such a couple turn into the by- 
road in front of his place, and wondered at it. for it 
was lare to see anybody enter that road. (Question 
followed question anil the men learned all they 
needed to Hud the house, and to attack it. On tak- 
ing a parting drink, the tall fellow e.iclaimed. 'I have 

got her.' Reaching I e we found all well e.Ncept 

the master, whose neck was still swollen and pain- 
ful. He was lying on the bench near the tire. Jabez 
explained his errand ami the message he brought. 
Tlie master pulled the head of Jabez close to his 
mouth, for he could only whisper, and said. 'You 
tell Mr Kambray that what happened .Sabbath night 
made nie un abolitionist, and the girl will stay here 
until she wants to leave. Is not that your mind, 
Ailicr' 'You have spoken what was in my own 
mind, Andrew.' Tilly, who was standing by, burst 
into tears, and clasping tlie mistress by the neck 
kissed her .saying, 'I wHl serve you good.' She wa.s 
the most grateful creature I ever met. Jabez stay- 


Tht' Surntt'ive of 

1 : ! , 


eil until lifter tlinuer, aii'l, on leaving, promi»0'l to 
^ive us a him<l when it was time to burn our lirush- 
pil('S. Tilly niJiilc hersulF useful not only in our 
home hut those of Bro*lio ftn«i Auhl au-l proved to 
he ll reul hi'lp. 

.hMiy 16 — Thankful 1 can agaiti l»end my heail 
without pain. Tlie wooils are a <;loriou.s si^'ht. It 
sn(jwe<l yestenhiy morning. Before lUrk the snow 
turned to rain, which froze as it fell, encrustinjy 
everytliing. On the ."^un coming out hright this 
morning the trees .-iparkled as if made of crystal 
and the branches of the evergreens hung in masses 
of radiant white. So Alice described thcni, and we 
all agreed a sight so beautiful we never saw. 

Jany 17 — Robbie and Allan set ort' on siiowshoes 
for a day's hunting and came back in the afternoon 
carrying a deer, which they had run down, being 
enabled to *\k) so by the crust on the snow lireaking 
under the poor animal's hoofs. There are more tlian 
men hunting deer. Last night we heard the wolves 
in full ciy a-* they were chasing them. 

Jany. 21 — Astonishe<l by a visit from Mr and Mrs 
Bauibray. They visited all the houses and seemed 
pleased by what they saw. Had a long talk with 
him alwut how the province is being governed. Mrs 
Bainbray brought clothes for Tilly. The tlm.v we 
have had has lowered the snow, and chopping down 
trees has been going on. 

Jany 22 — The day bjing moderate and the sleigh- 
ing splendid drove to Toronto, the oxen going faster 

liuntun Si'llur 

1 :l.l 


tlinn a iniui imiiI.I walk. Sought to n. ■■ 
wliu iiceoptc.l coi-titiciiti'i of Ailiu uii ' iin 
iiiftit is March 'Hi. 

Jaiiy. 2.)— Visitt-.i tlii' farmer frum wIk.iu I l»)U(;lit 
the stuLT. Wo lui.l n hearty welcume. Ailie mucli 
taken with their stove aii>l its oven, an.l 
about I'anailian ways of hdusekeepin:;. Kiitli was 
J^iven a kittetl. 

.lany 27 -(ireat sn.iwstorni. 

Jany 2.1— Quite luiM tliis niorninjr, a warm wind 

'■' l-'if soutli. Snow nieltiri;,'. At noon there was 

a suil.hTi chau^je of the wind to the nortluvest, which 
rose to a tempest, overturninf; trees and making,' most 
doleful .sounds as it swept tliron}.di tlej woods, where 
it l.roke off branches by the tlioiisand. Became pierc- 
injjly cold. Such ipiick clianijes cannot be healthy. 

Jany 30 —More snow with strong; east wind. 

Feby, !( —After ten days of stormy weather, today 
is line and bri<;ht. The snow is over three feet on 
the level. Inipo.s.sible to work in the bush. Ciordoa 
is preparing for sugaring', making spouts and buckets. 
I have to jret a kettle to make potash and will buy 
one now, for it will .serve for boiling sap. 

Feby ]4 — Rain, snow si. kin;,' fast 

Keby IS— Went with the three boy.s to Toronto 
and bought |xitash kettles. They cost SI2. 

Feby 2+— Sun is gaining strength and days are 

lengthening. Can see the snow wasting in the sun. 

In the shade, freezing hard. Are iloiug good work 

in the bush. 

Feby -Jii— Snowing thick and fast, but not cold. 

'I III- Xiitiutiit 

' ■ • ' . 



Fil'y 2t(— Sky witlmiit n cluml ninl inilii (ii'iilmi 
Ulipcil 11 tr«,> or twii, hut tliuri' wii- im Mip. 

Miireli U— Roiisc'il I'V II Iwilli. wi lii'iiity tliat im- 
l,, I'XCfpt Jnliiz ciiul.l utti-r it. Tli.' tin.' w.itlic^r 
liiiil hiiii tiivil of til.- tmvii im.l r.ciiil.'.l tin- 
BU(;iir-tiiiie .if liis y.mtli. He |iicki'.l ..iit tlu- iimpl.'.< 
t.i lie tiippi'il, tliiise must sliiltiTc'.l ami fiiciri),' tliB 
Kun, lui.l .|iiickly tliiir Imik wii» l..iri-.l iiii.l siioiitH 
in-.t.'1-te.l. In tlie atti'rn(i.m there was ii fiiir run. 
By tlmt lime the huj,'e k.-ttle hn.l Ineli simv,' iiu.l 
the tile starte.l. It wu» ii hij.' phiy tli.' y. 11111;,'- 
Btert., iin.l their sliinitin),', wli.'ii .luh.-z ii.niiv.1 s.ip ..n 
the Kii.HV illl.l it tnrile.l t.i, mi^'ht huve heell 
heiir.i 11 mile iiwiiy. 

March 11— .laliez left, tukiii;; as part ..f his spiiil 
a jar ..f syrup aii.l a liit .if cakes cit sii;,'ar. Uii.ler 
his teaching; Aili.' .plickly learue.l tii su^'ar .itf. ami 
(li.l it liver the kitchen tire in the lii;;^>est put. Sent 
cakes as presents tii Mrs Banihriiy ami Mrs Dunlop 
March 1-2— All tire.l after the we.'k's sn;,nir-mak- 
in". Siirprisin;; what a ipiantily was iiiaile. .hie to 
the Auhls iin.l Brollies helping, wh.i ;;ot their slmr... 
March IN— Have hail no sujfar-weather this week; 
frosty with striiiij,' wimls, an.l some snow. Allan, 
with help of Mr Auhl, lies;an hauling' Imanls from 
sawmill, which we will nee.l for hams. 

March 20--tJor.liin awakened us hy shoutin;; A 
sufjar snow." There hail liecn a lisht shower of it 
during the nij;ht, ami the air was soft. Hoh'S were 
rclioreil and there was a tine run of sap. Liki-ly the 
last, for there is now haril trust. 

Ittn-ttnli Si'lhil 

Miircli 2.) — lluvi' iimili' |>ri'|iiiiuti<iiis fcjr tlif siicm- 

nifiit, WuiUliiT liiii liwri fii'kli', ^ i-tiliici ^tmw, 

tlitn mill, hut illwnys l.lowy with ccl.l iiij;lit«, 

.Miin'li2() Fiiirijvi rhfiv.l hut sli.ijjliiiin hi-iivy. ( 
tci Tuninto in tiiiii' niiil Imil u iinil, I )i,,|i,., a 
imiHtiihli' SI71S..I1, Ui-ciillini< pust iiccu-ioiw. Ailif w,n 
iiMlch utll.ct.'.l on taking; tlic clip in h.r hiin.l. Sho 
WHS imxii.iH iih.iiit tlic-iv l„.inj{ nu S,-nt- 
liiiiil, lii'l'.iiv l.avinj,' Toront.i I wont t.. tli.' post- 
uinsti-T an.l ff<l » letter. It was frmri l;ei' .-.ister, whuso 
hushiinii hiiil 11 rente.l IWiii at Lcichwinnceh. Tliiy 
Imve .leeiile.i t" lolkiw us to, ,iii,i ask that 
1 liiok HUt a fann f,>r tliem. 'I'hey h..) ■■ t.i have 
over a thousanil d. liars after payini; th. ii passage. 
When we yet l„,ine U,,l,l,ie's news was t lut he li.i.l 
seen Ii, 

Mareh i7— (ila.Mene.l when I woke t„ hear (he 
soun.l uf The rol.iii here is not the Seotti-h 
re.lhreast, Lei,,;, „„ich larger alel with a .lirtereiit 
not.-. I'.-oplo I spoke to at church ye.ster.lay sai.l 
we are having; an unusually late season. I am weary 
of the si^fht of tlu' snow, which is now wastinj; in 
the sun. Hcaril froe.s at a distance last ni»lit. The 
long winter i.s a .serii>us offset to farniinj,' in Canada. 
April 3— Jaliez with Sluot came this niornin;,' to 
start huruinj. our fallow, ami hefore dark we l.a.l 
made ijreat projrres.s. There is enough snow and ice 
left to make it easy for the o.ten to haul iu(<s, 

April ft— By ourselves once more; the hurnin;; and 
the making' of potash tinished yesterday. There is 
now clearance enoUs,'h i>n all three lots to make sure 


Till- .\iitnitivi- III 

\ > 

, i n 

I * 1 1 
It h*'-i 


of miHiiiir NtirticitMit crop t" kn-p iim, ho \i will not 
Ik- •^n iinich li work of litV tiixl ili-utli to kci>p tit ilio 

ft'lliiiif (if tn-e-*. ('hnppini; tlu'iu is •*! liilnvrimiH, 

but liiiriiiii}; tlu'iii !■« wnr>f — 'it nmeli u« Hr-li uml 
hl(Hi<l can U-iir. Tltu hiirriin^ we IukI in tlit- iii)l 
wan t«> yet u piitch of liiU'l cl)'ar*'il I'm* nuwin;;. Tliit 
time we wtTf prfpnri'd tn fiivt' tlio ii-tln <. iiunton 
net up ihrcf leuchi's «>n the t'<lj,'i' uf thf pon.l, anil 
a»< tin- luf*-* wpri' hurnt'tl tin* aslit"4 wvn- ^'iitlun.-fj 
Ami liiiiili''t hy (>x-sK*i| to til) tlifin, Ruiii!iiin<^' tlie 
ashfs into tlie k-acht-s as sulitl a-^ piissilitt* ami tlun 
pouring wjitfi' upon tlii-ni fril t<MmMtii<l the woiiitin, 
tl.i' im-n uttt-'niliii;; to tin- Imrninj,', tht- lakin^^ of lliu 
Ofilies tnj,'i'thfr, ami luiulin;; tlu'iii. Aftti' soakinj; 
all nii^ht, or lonj^tT, tlit- Icdcli"-! uru tuppi'tj, when the 
lye runs into a trouj^li. niutlf I'y hollowing; w* l'i;r a 
pint-- a-i we Coulil Hml. From the lronj;li th*- Iv" ! ■ 
dippcil into thi- kettle, under which ix lit-rei; fire ha.i 
to he kept. As the lye iHuIe'l, the wtidr in it p(i>s- 
(•(1 ofl' in clomls c)t' steam, more lye liein^r p<iuru<l in 
to ki'tji it full, Hy-aii'lliy *i stii*ky uv.i-^^ eoul'l 'ms 
felt at till- h((tioTii uf the kettle, which was la<lh'<t 
into ca>t iron rjonlers, an>l heciime solirl. This is 
call''! hlack salts, is harre!e«l, ami shipped to Britain, 
where it is in ^reat ilenMiul. The (piantity uf lye 
needed to make a hundrtd-weight of l>lack-«alts as- 
tonished nie. 1 j^ot ten cents a pound for what we 
made and that will keep us in provisions until we 
liave our own wheat to take to mill. 

April 9— All glad of the Sahbath rest. Warm. 
the soft maples red with buds. 

Otinlni, Sftliir 


April l.'.-lWii l.u.y ull wwk. iii„«tly i„ t-lmriiiK 
•iii.i lun'lliiiK till- l.iiriH'.l liin.l f,,r »,.wiii- Snwi'il 

twi. I,ii.1m.|» nt ,.ut, ll,j, „t„.„„,„„, l),.y|„^, „,j,„|, 

niiil II hut Hiiii 

April iO-TI„. rain n-,.!,,! u. ,un «r.,i„ ,.,.„„ 
Iii-t ni({lit. M..i-t nihl w,inn tcl.iy with n.phl ^Tcwth 
April 22-l'lH„t,..| p„t„t...-. Aili..nn,i AIkt ^.i^ 
tin;; thr j,'« slutl' in. 

April 2(i-\V,„„lnfuI -r.,wth: n.itliii,;; lik,. it in 
Sc.tluM.I, Th.rv is „„ -pri,,:,, h,-r..; Ih.. jump i. froin 
winter tc mnmnv. (),ir l,ri,ll,..p„tli tu V„nKi-»tr,i.t 
i» WM.ft that „;i,.n ciinnut h,. put on it. " 
K<H-sl,u.k t„T..r..nt.,„n M..„,l„j. t,. jnin the tru.h.s- 
man h.- «a, witli in the fall, an.l who ha« -nA Cor 
him. Hi- will hiivf lu walk, lV,r Y,.nKi..,tr, it, I am 
tol.l, if 11 chain ..I' l,<.ir hi,lc«. 

May l:t-^llavc' ha.l chanKiahU. wi-athc-r: latlur 
tuo nry ami a f, «• cM ni^'hl.v Th, si„,„lin;. lai.h 

keeps fr<Ht .,«■ the,l, which < |,| „„t l.«,k 

hotter, liusy prepuiinj: In^rs for huihli,,^. 1„.,,„; ^e 
are all w,,rkin- t.-ctlier. Three will he nee,i,,| 
Except fur the f;roun.| K.^s we are u-in^ cellar 
which is lif;ht to han.lli. ,„„: ,,„,j. t,, |„.„, ,||,^ 

Bamhray sent a hm „f apple-trees „„.! another 

of herry hushes. Ail plante.l an,| l,„,k a. if ,l,,^. 
liave rooteil. 

June :i— Gordon along witli Sloot came thi- even- 
in;; to help in raising the hams. Plante.l corn to- 
day; an entirely new crop to u.s. The heads will he 
food for our tahle and the stalks the oxen are fond 
of. The winter-wlieat is in the .shot-hlaile Went 

' 'I 

l«clf , the swamp and fuun.l what ha.l l,„,n nl„„. 
e.l ... Hne shape. .See.Ie.l ,low„ with „ats I |,„pe 
lor a j,'ui,,l ivtiini. ' ' 

Ju..e U-Barns a.-e Hnishcd. Much easier t., huiM 
thar, were „ur ,sha..ties. Using block a,.,l tackle ,„ 
h.nst.n« was a great help. Wheat is heginni,,,, to 
color. li„hl„e saw a ,leer l.rowsing i„ the oat. ,„t 
l..»K..n,a.„lshotit. Deer ... h-y a,,,- ti,„e M 
at tins season is pt,,a- eating. ['..tat.ies ,,„,1 en, 
have got their hrst hoeing, 

June 27-A ,1,-y hot .spell. .Seotla,„l gets too nuieh 
.■a.n; Canada too little. Wheat i. ripenin.. to., hst 
It will he Ht to cut on Monday. 

July .S-Wheat is safe; Irying winds and a h,t 
Hnn n.a.Ie it ,,uickly Ht to lead. I„ .Scotland it n,i,d,t 
have l,ee., out three weeks hefo.-e Ht to stack Vi,,, 
Mual.ty and ala.ndant yield. Will „„t need to huy 
mure Hour. 

July 12-Have had a plentiful .-ain that has -aved 
the crops, for oats are tilling I answered my si, 
ter's letter at once, with directions h„w to co.ue 
Have spent any thue I could spire in trying to Hnd' 
a lot tor then,. Gordon walked in this u.ornin.. with 
a lettcT .nailed fn„n (irec.ock, stath.g they w"e.-e to 
take sh.p that week. As they n,ay he he.-e ..ext 
week , .lecide ,|uickly on a hon.e for then, 

July 1.5-Allan ami n.yself have been on the 
trudge for three days, looking for a lot Fhially 
deeded on one with a clearance of nearly ten acres 
and a shanty with an outbuilding It is far north 
on Yo.ige.street, but all ..earer Toronto we.-e h.dd 

ii unit HI 


at prices tlu- . ci'ihi not iit'- nl. The owner leaves 
on account oi ^'i'knvus nad >M the lot witli its bet- 
terments unil jiiowiiij; ci-^j. for 8600. 

July 22 — Left home on Momlny to wait in Titnmto 
for arrival of my brother-in-law aii'l family. They 
came on the ItJth, sounil and hearty. As I had 
directeil them, they took a .ship for New York and 
thi'nce by the Hudson and Krie canal to Oswego, 
where they i^nt the -.teamer for Toronto. Thu.s they 
avoided the hardships of the St Lawrence route and 
saved a fortniglit in time. Lookinj; at the map, I 
can see New York is Toronto's nearest ocean port. 
The teams !.;ot .started early in the afternoon, but the 
road was rou*r}i and the horses had to walk all the 
way. It was growing; dark when we reached the 
shanty, from whose one window gleamed a iijifht. 
and at the door were Ailie, Alice. aii<l Hobble, who 
had spent two days cleaninir jmd making; the plaCv,* as 
decent as possible. A table of boards, with bt-nches 
at its side, was spread with supper. A joyous hour 
was cut -short by the team>ter.s cryinjj; out horses 
were tV'l and they were ready to return. They 
dropped us at the end of our lane. 

July 26— Finished cutting the oats on the swamp 
while green and stacked them. There is a fair catch 
of grass. 

Aug. 4 — All the grain is ripe: cutting is slow on 
account of the st^umps. Today there were four of 
us busy with the hook. Oats are not as plump as 
in Scotland ; they rill too (juickly. 


'I'hf X.trr.ttiie ot 


Chai'Ter IX. 


Further extracts from tlie master's iliary would 
not help the story I am tellin',' you, for it hecoirjcs 
sucli a record as inany farmers keep, — when they 
sowed and reaped, wliat tlu-y sold anil boun;lit. Hav- 
ing completed the account of liis Krst year's experi- 
ence in tlie bush for his f icnil in Scotland, lie ceased 
notini; down his daily lia]ipenings, which for him 
no longer had the interest of novelty. The forest 
had been sufficiently subdued to enable him to jjain 
a living from the lanil, and his life partook more 
and more of the routine of Canadian farmers. He 
was, however, much inure succe.ssful than the ma- 
jority of them, due to his energy and skill. His 
first decided start was due to the existence of that 
swamp whose discovery fille<l him with dismay. The 
forage he got oH' it enabled him to start keeping 
stock long before he otherwise could liave done. In 
the fall of lS2ti lie bought a cow and a couple of 
two-year old heifers, and the following spring there 
was enough milk to enable the mistress to make a 
few cheese. These gave the farm a reputation wdiicli 

(Sotfion Silhir 

establisheil a steady demand at a paying price. More 
cows were got, no grain was sold, everything was 
fed, and the master, with the help of tlie mistress, 
led in dairying. In Ayrshire she had the name of 
making the best cheese in the parisli and iier skill 
stood the family in good stead in Canadv. Tliat 
second summer the entire swamp was brought into 
cultivation, and it proved to be the lieat land on the 
farm for grass. When other pastures were ilried 
up, cattle had a bite on tlie swamp, for so it con- 
tinued to be called long after it had lost all the 
features of a swamp. The clearing of the forest 
went on steadily, so that each fall saw a larger yield 
of grain and roots. I„ the fifth year the master 
was rejoiced to Hnd l[iany of the stumps could be 
<lragged out by oxen. an,l a field secured on which 
he could use the long-hamlled pl.iw as in Scotland. 
An utdooked for re.Mdt of the rlraining of the 
swairip an<l the sweeping away of tlie forest in 
every dlrecti,)n was the gi-a.lual ilrying up of the 
pond. A more striking instance was told me by a 
settler who was le.i to choose a lot near lake Simcoe 
on account of a brook prattling ucro-s it and which 
lerninded him of Scotland. In twenty years the 
brook was gone, the plow turning furrows on its 
beil. The one great drawback to the progress of 
the three families was the lack of a road to Yongj- 
sti-eet. In winter there was little difficulty for then 
snow made a highway, but the rest of the year no 
wheeled vehiele coulil go over it. At one of the 
se-sions of the legislature, when the estimates for 

7//'' \'iivrativt> of 

I til" 

roads im.l lirirlgus wm up, the owner of tlie 1200 
acre block of luncl tliiit was tlie cnusf of our trouble, 
iimile u pathetic iippoul for a f;rttnt to j;ivo an outlet 
to three of flie thriftiest ami most ileserving families 
he hail any aci|Uaintance with, ami his appeal re- 
sulteil in a hunilre.l dollars liein;,' voted. Two years 
later, on being ((uestioned by the master about the 
grant, tlie honorable aentleinau (for he had Hun. 
before his name) told hiiii he had drawn the money 
but there was no condition as to the time he should 
start the work. In 1830 there set in an unprece- 
dented influx of immigrants, who wanted land. 
The honorable jrentletnan saw hi.' opportunity and 
sold every acre of the 1200 Those who bought 
liad to cut out the road, and making it passable for 
travel was hanl work for years, on account of the 
size of the stumps and of many parts liavinjr to be 

With the coming of the^i^ new neighbors, a .school 
became iiece-isary and in it services were held on 
Sunday. The master sought the help of a Presby- 
terian minister in Toronto. He came once; on tind- 
ing how rude everything was, he declined to return. 
A North of Ireland family was no moi-o success- 
ful with an Anglican minister. He had newly come 
out from a cathedral city in the south of Kngland 
and was shocked to Hnd the log school had not 
a robing-room. The end wos ibat a Methodist cir- 
cuit-rider took in our settlement in his rounds, which 
resulted in a majority of those who attended his 
services uniting with the Methodist church. The 

(itnijotl Seltiif 

ministers wlio came imm tlic 01<1 Country in tl.osc 
early .lays were siM,<,'iil.irly unfit fi.r new settlements. 
The Ansiicnn uji lunclinj; .issumed lie was the only 
duly uccre.lite.l elerfrymun, un.l was c.tten.le.l at his 
claim heinj; sliirhteil, while his feelings were jarre.l 
liy the lack of conditions he considered issential to 
the proper conduetinjr of worship. The Presbyterian 
ministers were more amenable to the ehan^'es, yi-t 
their ideals were of the parishes they had known 
in .Scotland— a church, a niiinse, a j,'iebe, tiends, and 
a titled patron. ertects of State established 
churches in the Ohl Land were thus felt in the, which wivs shown more markedly in 
the stj-ife to reproduce State clmrches in ('nnada. 
I look back with distress t<i the bitter controversy 
which went oji from year to year over the posses- 
sion of the revenue from the cler<;y reserves. The 
cause of strife was not aitocrether the money, but 
the proof of superiority the po.ssession of the fund 
would ijive. With many it wa-^ as much pride as 
covet. When we rec.ill the un.rfry that char- 
acterize.! the aijitation over the eleri,'y reserves, I 
think ..f whiit the same effort «.>nld have accom- 
plisheil ha.l it been .liieeted to evangelize the pro- 

An.)ther, les- pnihinged but Kercer while 
it laste.l, was that which reached its hea.l in the re- 
belli.m As was unavoi.lable, the rule of the 
province on its being organized, fell into the 
of the people who first came. They .livi.ied its 
public oHices among themselves and manage.! its 

77/f \;irr,itiyr 



affairs. In time the-se tirst-CDiiiurs wi-re outnuiul)oi'- 
uil by iiiimigrant'i, Imt tliere was uo cluinj;e — the 
tirst-cointTs lifM to the reins. Had tliey u^ed tlieir 
power in the public interest, thiit would have been 
submitted to, Imt they did nut — they abused their 
power for their own interests. They multiplied 
offices, increased salaries, i^rahhed the public lands, 
and laid the foundation of u national debt by bor- 
rowinn; money. There were insta .ces of stealing of 
public fund-^, with no punishment followinj^. Far- 
mers became restless nnder an iniijuitous adminis- 
tration of public lands. The <liscontent. which wa.s 
as wide as the province, was taken advantage of by 
men who designed Canada shimld become a republic, 
and bej^an an aj^itation to bring that about Men, 
like the master, wlio ardently wished reforms, were 
ropelleil when they found the main object of the 
leadei's of the ai>itation was the separation of Cana- 
da fr ,i" Hritain an I would Kave iiothing to do with 
tlieiii. The first time the master mot Mackenzie ho 
took .L ilislike to him, perceiving his overweening 
vanity, his hal)it of contradiction, and his lack of 
judgment. He said lie was a specimen of the un- 
pleasant type of Scot who meddled and denounced 
to attract attention and make himself of consequence. 
When he saw him shaping a rebellion he declared it 
w-ould he a ridiculous failure, that no such whitrick 
of a creature could lead in the people's cause. There 
were grievous wrongs to be righted, but he held the 
advocacy of the changes called for by .such men as 
Mackenzie was a hindrance instead of a help to their 

flnnloii Si-Uur 


beiu^ secured. BrtwJie's oliiest son wtis sDinewhat 
conceited, iinti Iiad onae to lielieve he wiis tmrn to lio 
soinethinj^ else tlm» a farmer. I think the isolation 
of farm life conduces to develop that notion. The 
boy brought little in contict with his ft-Hows. does 
not have Id.'* pretensions ruhhed down, and comes to 
think he is superior to them. I have s-'en Riany 
such, who thinkinj,' they were htisiness men, or would 
shine in some puhlic capacity, or were titled to adorn 
a profession, made shipwreck of their lives in leav- 
ing; the plow. Hugh was one of those. A good 
fellow and a good worker witli his father, he hegan 
by fre<]uenting corner-stores at night and liefore 
long considered himself an authority in politics and 
was ready to argue in a long-winded and dreary 
fashion with any who disputed his crude assertiims. 
Taken notice of hy leaders in the agitation goini; 
on, appointed to committees and consulted as tc 
plans on foot, he became carried away and neglect- 
ed his home duties. When the explosion took place 
in December, 1887, he was one of those who met at 
Montgomery's tavern. A decisive blow could have 
been struck had the men there gathered marched 
to Toronto and seized the guns storeil in the city 
hall. There was no man to taki; the leail, Mac- 
kenzie vapored and complained of others, formed 
plans one hour to change the next, and demonstrat- 
ed the weakness of his shallow nature. Seeing this, 
farmers sincerely desirous of a change in the rule 
of the province, left for their homes, and the haml- 
ful left were routed withou* trouble. Hugh was 

Thi- Siiirntivi' of 



among those made prisoners anil placeil in Toronto 
jail. His father was in great distress and implored 
mc to help to get him released. My stay in Toronto 
had given a knowledge of its officials and I told 
him if he was willing to pay it might he done We 
went to the home of the jirosecutor for the erown. 
The fatlier told lii.s tale and, in piteous terms, heggcd 
the return of liis son to hi.s distracte<l mother. I'er- 
ceiving what he said had no effect, I took the gentle- 
man aside and told him the father nnght give cash 
bail. 'How nuich is he ready to deposit?' was asked. 
I thought lie had S23 in his pocket. 'Not enough,' 
he replied. 'The lad can be mrlicted for treason 
which means hanging.' 'You cannot get evidence 
against him on tliat charge. Say what you want?' 
Turning to Brodie he said if he would deposit ten 
poumls, and enter into the proper recognizances he 
would give him on order to the jailor for his son's 
release. Without a word of demur the father count- 
ed out 940 of Ids painfully gathered savings and the 
chancellor scribbled the order. On reacliin" the 
prison the jailor raised objections. It was now dark 
and after hours and the lad ha<l been boarded four 
days and the fees of the constables who had arrested 
him had to be paid. I cut him short liy asking 
'How much?' The fellow eyed the father as if cal- 
culating the extent of his ability to pay. 'Two 
pound ten,' he said. 'Nonsense,' I replied, 'farmers 
have not that much money to give away; say one 
pound ten and I will advance it for him.' He nod- 
ded and I passed the money. Going upstairs he 

(iorduti Svlhir 

threw open a door, and we saw in thf hall, or rather 
corridor, a crowd of men. Tlicy wtre silint with tlic 
exception of one who was denounciny Ins licinp held 
as an i utrnge, for he wu.s as loyal as the ^'nvirnor 
himself. The rest of them were endurinj; their con- 
ilition in sullen silence. Among them were indus- 
trious farmers who had warrants issued against them 
hecause they had lieen known to threaten orticials in 
the land-office for not getting patents for the lots 
they had paid for, farmers arrested on informations 
hxlged hy men who oweil them, others hy oHicials 
who expected to share in their property when con- 
fiscated, and harriMUU politicians who had expressed 
their opinions too freely uhout those in power. 
A few, however, were thoughtless young fellows who 
had heen drawn to visit Montgomery's tavern fnun 
mere curiosity and love of excitement. The room 
was lighted dimly hy two lamps hung oti the walls; 
the heat was stifling, the odor sickening. We look- 
ed amonL' the throng for Hugh. His father pulled 
my slec\( ,irid pointed to a far corner, where he was 
s<(uat on the floor with his face to the wall in the 
stupor of despair The jailer jostled his way to 
him, and grasped his collar. Hugli turned his face 
in agonized apprehension of his fate, for he told us 
afterwanls he expected to he hanged, and that he 
was wanted. Dragging him to where we stood the 
poor fellow collapsed at sight of his father anil fell 
on his neck. Hastening downstairs the jailer open- 
ed the wicket and we were on the street Hugh 
was dazed when he saw tlie jailer diil not follow 


77/c .S'ltnutivv of 

1 tu 


'WhcTH ttr.! w,. {.oiiiK, fotlicr'' a.MnK l.cnu. / IIhvo 
I not til «o Iwck to prison'' No. yoii .in> frcn.' 
Hu(»h l.r.ikc .lowii iin<l crieil. ■«'■■ will liiivi. siippiT 
anil thi-n wo will hitdi up' No, iio," »iil,l„.i| Hu^jh, 
'lut lis ^'o hiiini' now ' On sh.ikinjj; li.inds with tlii'ii. 
as the hors,. stiirteil, I siiw poor H-i.-li whs thuroly 
ImmhlLMl ami piiiiteht It whs not lor ii hriet tiiiif. 
for on (,'oinjr home he prove.l wimt his hoyhooil hml 
proiniseil, iin oheiliont son lunl steaily worker He 
never has now a wonl of complaint ahout what is 
set on the tahle,' « hispered his mother to me. 

This riiliciilous atti.inpt at a revolution ha<l one 
pKiil anil one hail effect. The ifooil. was a ehaiiKe 
in tile s"' • "nent that inailo conilitions more toler- 
able; th. !■ . . was in ifn-ng color to fasteniu),' upon 
Lilierals tliu stigma of ilisloyalty. The leaders in 
the attempted risinir had ileclared for .separation 
from Britain, and those of them who escaped across 
the frontier hecame avowed annexationists. What 
they were the Tories asserted all Liherals were anil 
the maintenance of British connection depended 
upon their hein^' kept out of office The many 
years that have passed have made that pretension 
traditional, and whenever there is an election, I hear 
the eharse of ilisloyalty imputed to I.iherals and 
the claim to exclusive loyalty made l,y their op- 

The pa.ssing years have wrought a marvellous 
change in the face of the country. Our drive up 
Yonge-street in IH23 was like a lioal tracing a nar- 
row channel of the sea. i)n either hand was a con- 

linrilnu Sf'llir 

tiiiUdiH wall cif forest, iiikI wlisre iiti iitl.iiipt liitil 
Im'.m iimili- tn pu-h it l.iick th.,' iincH.w.l Imsli pro- 
jfctfii lik;' nioky |iri>lii<irit>rii'>. Tlir liou-i's piiswil 
at wi.lf iiitirviiU wm' -liiiiiti.'>; thi' elfiii-Hno-x in 
wliicli they wiTi' »i't clutti'leil with sturnps. Iliiw 
ilidcreiit rinw. lluri<lHimiu ivsiilenoi lime replaeed 
the h>s-.shiirities, the hii^h luii l«'ei)iiie a irmeeflll 
t'nii;;e in the hack(,'ri)un.l i.f suiouth, well - tilleil 
Held-*, I, ike the neeaii which keep^ no trace i»l' the 
kii'ls that hase I'lirnnve'l its wa-tei. these heautiful 
Kehls aie the speechleiM hiiplest (.f the liie'i and 
women who reileehieil them from savn^'ery at tlio 
cost of painful privations, of exlnm-tin^', never ceas- 
ing toil, of premature deray of streni;th, Tliey 
finii;ht and overcame and sncceedin^r generations en- 
joy the fruits of their lahors -fruits they harely 
lived to taste were the men and women 
who nia<le Canada, the founders of its prosperity, 
the true Makers of the nation to which it has ^rrown. 
It is common for politicians and their new-papers 
to steal for thi-ir party-idols credit to which they 
have no claim, hy stylin^r them the .Makers of 
('anada, hut no suppression of facts, no titles the 
crown is misled to confer, no Windsor uniforms, no 
strutting in .swords and cooked hats, no declarations 
and resolutions of parliament, no hlare of party con- 
ventions lies i;raven on marhle, nor stitues of 

hronze, can clran(;o the truth, that the True Makers 
of Canada were who, in ohscurity and poverty, 
made it with ax ami spade, with plow and scytlio, 
with sweat of face and strenjrtli id' arm. 

Tbp Sitrrnlivr of 

1 1 v.\ 

I K.Milil not imply tluit Ih'Iiiu •"■' i» liiccswiily 
a iiiciit in itwif, Tlicrc' nin>t In. ii L.-^-innniif ti. ivcry- 
tliiiiy iuhI to niiiKnify lln- iimn wli,. tVll.,1 tin. first 

trii' (T ri'iiri'il tin. tir>t ^liuiity i Iionor if uimc- 

C" liy moral worth. I h«vv -t-.n nmny town- 
»hip» coin., into i-xiati.nct. iinil Inivi- known tlie nil n 
who lir>t went int.> tlKni. uml luy sorrow is tlnit mi 
ffW uf tli|.|ii iirv worthy of ivini.|iil,niiu.... Ui't'oij. 
nizilii; this, I puy no to <i Mmn who l.i»i«t.s ho 
WIH thi. tir-t to ,lo tlii, or tliMl, mill who. tliou;.|i 
Krst. thri.w nwuy his opportunity to liiTi.tit liiniv<.|f 
OD'I thiwi. who foliowi.,1. 1 niu tiiv.l of iiii.n who 
postun. us pionwrs niol foiin.hi- ,iri.| who huvo 
nothing' fls,. t.i|.l,iiiii. ( thi-y niso ini.l nionil 
worth, -Irov,. to i^iVi- llif ri^jht torn, to tlii. settl.- 
nifiit of which, l.y nociilfnt, tln.y «tiirt..,l, tlii-v m,! 
not'riiii;,' of nu're thun passiiii- iiotici.. .Sfons 
<if tiini.s I huve l.rn struck l.y the .liffi.ri.ucis in 
m.tth.niints, how one is thrifty, imuI its nci^hlior 
shiftli-HS; ono scu.liii); i|,t„ tin. worl.l y.iUU.; Mli'll iltiil 
wonion of intillifjini.f anil hifih nspinitiou: thi. othi.r 
coiirsi. people who uravitate .lownwai.l. If a tir>t 
settler is of sterling' charactir he mouMs the con,- 
munity that (,'Hthers iironu.l him ami he ileserve.s 
honor, hut the first settler of {,' huKii, it i^ well 
to foi-jret. The (;overnini nt that tries to make a se- 
lection lUllonf; those who seek its laiiil acts wi.seiy in 
the interest of ooiiiin;; i,'eni.mtioiis. To .rive hiiul 
to all who ask it, ret;, of wliat they are, will 
imleeil fill the country, hut will he of m, hem-tit in 
tl;e lunj; run. 1 know of townships where laziness, 

lianlmi Svllur 


i^jiiiimnw, |iMijii.|ifi!, uiiil i,'r...« hitliitvi luuvnil t(. •.ucli 
« ilcKruu thiit it wuul.l li;ivi' lifi'ii W-Uir liiul tin' 
liiiiil rcnittiiH'il ill liiish. 'I'll.' bulli't ■•trikvs n, ihn 
riltt' \s |)()iiit<>>l, hikI I'aimilu Iuih iii'\t'r iiititrij t" >'- 

CUri! tllU IwHt pi-Cllll' U» Wttlfp.. \\\- IlCl'cl impiilif 

tion, hiK U'l'ii till' ory, (jet it iiiiil iicvir iniii'l "f wliiit 
ciunlity it i'^ Wlmt i.i iiiuri' Miiiiinlili', iiiir K'Kislnluru 
il.iivs lint c'vi'ii li-y til vi-uiv nfttli'l-s «li.. will lissillli- 
liiti'. Buiiiifsa iiiij tu II tiiwiixlii|i uiut Miiiiiiii'r 
wliiTe lew iif till- sittliTi klli-w u wui-,1 uf Kti)ili»li. 
Is thut III.' wiiy t" liiiiiil u|i Chiiii'Iii h-' 

\uttiiv lius .1. -.iMiifil Ciiiuiilu us ail iiL;ricultillul 
cuuntry iilnl such it must ivmaiii. it«i.l |in.,|i,.r 
lis its luriiifrs ||» i, uii.l l,iii;{uisli wlnii tlioy lire 
not lining; woll. It MIows tlifir willaiv slmuiil l.f 
the tirst ciilisi.liTiitiun, ami u inistuk, « i i., maiiu 
if till' fact i- lint lvoi>i;liii«-il wlivn tiny wi.ik iiihUt 
uiifaviiral'Ir cnmlitiou,. 

Thu fariii.-r in tin- Ol.l I '.luntiy niii pic." ivery 
liioiitli ill till' yiai- nn.l his Hncks ami Innls .nily 
nuc'il siiii|ileiiiiiitary rations tu keep them in ciin- 
ilitiun, H..W .iitlerent it is, wheie wint.i' hicks 
the soil in iruii liomls half the year ami animals 
must lie feil from October tu May. What our far- 
mers raise in six niontlis is consunn-.i in the other 
six, so that their luiior iialf the year i, t.^ -tore up 
food for the other half. The result is, tlint the earn- 
ings of our farmers are less than half of what they 
would lie had we England's climate. The public 
man who argues that because the Old (..'oiintry 
farmer can pay heavy rent to his landlord. Iiear the 

"Jllf AillTUtivt' of 


burden of severe taxation, and yet make a living, 
tKe Canadian farmer should lie able to do likewise, 
shuts his eyes to the kind of winter he has to Hght 
against. That winter cuts his earnings more than 
half, for, during the months the land is frozen he is 
unable to do any kind of profitable farm work, in- 
deed has spells of enforced iillencss. The Old Coun- 
try farmer can keep hired help the year round, for 
he has employment for them; the Canailiun farmer 
needs extra hands only during summer. The result 
is that his margin of profits is so narrow that he 
can never pay such t .xes as are collected from tlie 
agricultural class in England. When public burdens 
draw on his income to the extent that lie is not 
left a living profit, the Anglo-.Saxon will leave the 
land to be occupied by an unenterprising class of 
people who are content to vegetate, not to live. 
The pre-eminent es.sential in Canada's policy is to 
make farming profitable and keep it so. 

While the statement, that agriculture is the foun- 
dation of Canada's life, is so often repeated that it 
has hecoiiie a commonplace remark, is it not extra- 
ordinary that none of its public men since Simcoe's 
day have acted upon iU With the words on their 
lips, Canada rests upon the farmer, it would be ex- 
pected the welfare of the farmer would be their 
solicitous concern. In the first element of agricul- 
tural prosperity, the settlement of the land, they 
have kept back the progress of the country by be- 
stowing it, not on the men ready and anxious to 
cultivate it, but upon individuals and companies who 

(iorilon Selitii- 

expect to inuke ix profit \-y reselling,' to the actual 
settler. By inukin^ the land n eomniodity to huy 
political support, the settltinent of the country has 
been kept back. The rule, that the land >.e j^iven 
only to those who will live upon it and crop it, 
would have saved heartbreak to thousands of will- 
ing men who came to our shores asking' lil>erty to 
till its soil, and would have placed an occupant on 
every lot fit to yield a living. The indiviiluals and 
companies who have been given grants of blocks 
of land under the pretence tliat tliey would settle 
them, have been blights on the progress of the 

As to the danger of taxation increasing to a de- 
gree that will make the working of the land un- 
attractive to the intelligent and enterprising, that 
menace comes fi-om two classes — the pr(i)i.'ctors of 
public works who agitate for them from self-interest, 
and fn>m v. ose who have raised a clamor to encour- 
age manufacturers by giving them bunuse^i in the 
form of protective duties. Should a levy ever U^ 
maile on the earnings of the fannei" to help a favor- 
ed cla-^s, there will be a leaving of tiie land for 
other countries and for better-paying occnpati(»ns. 

My liesire is, to see Canada a land where vvery 
man who wishes may own a part of God's f.iutstool 
and, by industry, secure a <lecent living. Surely it 
is ;i patriotic duty to make Canada a nation where 
toil ami tlirift fetch the reward of indepen-lunee, a 
nation without beggars or of men willing to work 
and cannot get it. a nation of happy homes where- 

1 1 lilt 


r/jp Xiirrutivf nt 

there is neither wealth nor luxury but enough of 
the world's means to ensure comfort and to develop 
in its men and women what is best in human nature. 

Gordon Sellar 




My story of how I came to Canada --nd how the 
family which made me one of their number (^t on 
in its backwoods lias taken a long time to tell, yet 
I must lengthen it to make known what became of 
some of the people mentioned in the course of it. 
Tilly remained with na a year, when she went 
to live with the Bum brays, who needed her help. 
When they, later on, decided to end their days in 
their native town, Uuddersfield, she went with them 
to England. Once a year a letl<;r came from Mr 
Bambray, with a long postscript by Tilly, overflow- 
ing with good wishes, and in each letter was a draft 
to help escaped slaves get a fresh start in life. The 
worthy couple died several years ago, making Tilly 
their chief legatee. She married a man for whom 
ghe described herself as unworthy and who makes 
her happy every day. When Ruth married she sent 
her a gift of 8250 to furnish her Ruth's hus- 
band is a capable farmer, who is doing well. They 
are an evenly matched team, pulling together and 
happy in each other. When Robbie came of age the 



'Ihf Nairn five of 

I [ I"' 



master divided his farm equally between his two 
sons, anil bought for himself six acres fronting 
Yonge-street. On this he built a commodious house 
and a large greenhouse, for he designed carrying on 
market-gardening. In an excavation deep enough 
to lie belo* the fro... .ine the greenhouse was built, 
anil there were other devices to do with as little 
stove-heat as po.ssible. Sloot, who had lieen left a 
widower, and having no family, became the hired 
man and made his home for the remainder of his 
life with the master and mistre.<s, to wliom he was 
deeply attached. Twice a week he drove to market 
the produce that was for sale, and though occupa- 
tion not beyond their strength was their purpose, 
remarkable profits were made oHT these six acres. 
The mistress was happy in tending the greenhouse 
and flower-beds, and in entertaining visitors, for 
they had many apart from their own children and 
grandchildren. They were honored far and wide 
and a drive to their house, wliich they named 
Heatherbell cottage, to have a chat and get a bou- 
quit was a connnon recreation with many Toron- 
tonians. l)f your mother I need not speak; you 
know how happy we are in each otlier. We never had 
any courtship— our lives from the tii-at sight of her 
when [ ventured to seek shelter in her father's house 
on that rainy day lias been one long dwellini' in each 
other's atfections. As trees strengthen with years, 
our attachment has grown deeper and purer. Just 
as soon as I made my footing good in Toronto, our 
marriage took place. Lovers before the ceremony 

UoTdon Sellar 


we are lovers still. Ah, my dear lassie, do not think 
love is a brief fever of yuuth-a transient emotion 
that fades before the realities of wedded life like the 
glow from a cloud at morn. Where love is of the 
true ((Uttlity, it becomes purer and tenderer with the 
passing years. Death may interrupt, but cannot 
end such affection as ours, Love is eternal. 

With Mr Kerr I kept up the exchange of letters 
he asked, and the information and advice his con- 
tained have helped to shape my character and opin- 
ions. The year after his arrival he started in busi- 
ness tor himself and prospered. His wife i.s the girl 
whom he was courting when he fled from Green^k. 
Our visits to them are delightful memories and you 
know how we enjoy their sojourns with us. Jabez 
also became a Montrialer The business of himself 
and brothers as carters naturally merged into for- 
warders. As traile grew it was found needful one 
slumld be in Montreal, and Jabez went. Level- 
headed and full of resource he soon came to the 
front in the shipinng-trude. 

With Mr Snellgrove we hail an unlooked for en- 
counter. The niiister was on a visit to us at Toronto. 
On reading notices of a meeting to lie held in favor 
of Protection an,l of the government issuing paper 
currency instead of gohl, we decided to attend. The 
Hrst speaker was Isaac Buchanan, who deluged us 
with figures alwut Bullionism an.l the balance of 
trade. We were relieved when he ended Then a 
college professor read a paper on the Co-relation of 
tJreat Britain and her Colonies. It was difficult to 


Thfi ynrrativfl of 

' .1" 

1 1 >•■■ 

follow him. He was one of those theoretical men 
who think forms of government and names can 
make a country j^reat. We starteJ with astonish- 
ment on the chairman sayinj^ he had plennure in 
introducing Mr Snellgrove as the next speaker. It 
was he sure enough, ohler but still spruce, and re- 
splendent in full evening dress. He did not touch 
on currency, but confined hini«4elf to advocating a 
protective tariflT so liigh that it would shut out 
foreign goods. That would enable manufacturers to 
establish themselves in Canada, and insteail of a 
stream of gold going to Britain and the United 
States the money would be spent for goods made 
in Canada. See what a rich country we would be- 
come if we kept our money here, he said; our great 
lock is capital to de^■eIop our immense resources. 
We hud the capital in our own hands but, blind 
to our own interests, sent it away to Great Britain 
or, what was worse, to the United States to build 
up a country that wa^ hostile to U'^. Like the Gulf 
Stream, which sweeping through the Atlantic en- 
riches every country it touches, he would have a 
golden circuit established in Canada — the farmers 
would sell to the manufacturers and the money paid 
them would continue to flow backward and forward 
to the enrichment of both. The flowing of gold 
from our midst would be stopped, and the farmers, 
with a home-market for all they could raise, would 
become rich and view with delight factories rising 
on every liand. All tliis could be accomplished by 
enacting a judiciously-framed tariflT and delay in 

ilfii-thm Si'Uiir 

doing so was not only keeping Canwlii poor Lut en- 
dangering her future as a British depcnilency. Ap- 
plause followed Mr Snellgrove's sitting down, and 
the chairman praised him as a gentleman wlio had 
carefully thought out his proposals, which commend- 
ed themselves to every patriotic mind. We wanted 
diversity of occupation and retention of the earnings 
of the farmers in Canada; here was a method of 
eflccting both these desirable ends. 

The master got on his feet and begged permission 
to be heard in reply. He was invited to the plat- 
form and, with his usual directness and force, at 
once assailed what Mr Snellgrove had advanced. 
He says, let us have a law that will compel us to 
cease buying goods abroad, for thereby the money 
now sent away will be kept in Canada. What right 
has any government to pass such a law? With the 
money I get for my wheat may I not buy what I 
need where I see fit? Such an arbitrary law as he 
pleads for would undoubtedly help the manufacturer, 
but would it help me, who am a farmer? The ques- 
tion I ask, is not will the money stay in Canada, but 
will the money I have justly earned stay in my 
pocket? I will be none the richer if the money 
goes into the pocket of the owner of a factory. In 
the Old Country the farmers carry the aristocracy 
who own the land on their backs, are the laws of 
Canada to be so shape<l that the farmers here are 
to carry the manufacturers? It may not be plain 
to you city gentlemen, but it is to me, that under 
the system you have heard advocated, factories 


Thf Xnmitive of 



would increase and their owners grow rich while 
the farmers would become poor, for they would 
have to pay more than they now do fur the goods 
necessity makos them buy. My family needs aiwut 
•300 worth ui store-goods in a year. Tliat is what 
I pay now. Under Protection these same goods 
would cost me *400, perhaps more. The Canadian 
manufacturers would he the richer by the hundred 
extra dollars I would pay, and I would be the poorer 
by a hundred dollar.^. The point at issue, is not 
keeping money in the country, but of keeping it in 
the pockets of the men who Hrst earned it by culti- 
vating the soil. Canada is a farming country and 
always will be, and taxing each farmer's family on 
an average of say a hundred dollars a year is going 
to iliscourage the farmer. Let every tub stand on 
its own bottom. If any comir wlity can be made in 
Canada at a protit under present conditions, I wish 
all success to the man who undertakes to make that 
commodity, but to tax me to give the man a bonus 
to do so is to rob me of my honest earnings. We 
have been told we want more population. Yes, if 
it be of the right kind, of people who will go, as I 
did, into the bush and carve out farms. These will 
add to our strength, but hordes drawn from cities 
who cannot and will not take to the plow, will prove 
in the long run a weakness. If you knew the poverty 
and misery that exists among the factory operatives 
of the Old World you would not entertain a project 
to bribe them to come here and reproduce the same 
conditions. Today you have not a beggar on Toron- 

Ilonlon Srilar 


to's atrceU; adopt Protection ami you will have thou- 
•anils of paupers. This is a new country ami our 
aim shoulii lie to make it one where honest industry 
can find a sure reward in its forests and not lie 
creating factories by artiticial means. As an Old 
Countryman, I take exception to the land I came 
from hciufn treated as foreign and a ban placed on 
the goods it has to export. When I gi, into a store 
I like to think what I am buying is helping those 
I left behind, and when I pay for the cloth and other 
goods ti.ey maile, do they not in return buy the grain, 
the butter and cheese, and the pork I have to sell ? 
I protest against our government abusing its power 
to tax the fanners to benefit the manufacturers. 
That is tyranny, and when farmers understanil that 
Pn>tection is one of the meanest forms of despotism 
they will revolt. This must be a free country, with 
no favor shown to any class 

Wc saw gentlemen on the platform urging the 
chainnan to atop the master; he .seemed reluctant 
to make a scene. Finally he did pull him down, 
stating he was not speaking to the subject liefore 
the meeting. The best reply to the disloyal out- 
pouring to which they had listened he considered 
was contemptuous silence. After votes of thanks 
the meeting ended. The master advanced towards 
Mr Snellgrove to renew his accjuaintance. Mr Snell- 
grove turned his back upon him and left with a 
group of gentlemen. I learned he held a govern- 
ment office. 

I have a more unexpected meeting to relate. The 


Thf SHrrtitiv0> of 


sixth year after my marriage, it had ^'"en arranged 
Christmas should be celebrated at Allan's and New 
Year's at the maHtcr's. We had l>ccn locking for 
what people in Scotland dreail, a Green Yule, for 
the ground was bare. When we ruse the morning 
before Christmas we were pIcaHcd to see it white, 
and a gentle lifting of snow falling. Allan came 
for us early in the afternoon ant) we tilled his big 
sleigh with children and parcels. We hai) just got 
into the house when the clouds lowered and it be- 
came suddenly dark. You have seen in summer ft 
gentle rain prevail, until, all at once, a plump Cime 
that covered the ground with streams of water. Once 
in u number of years the like happens with snow, 
and a gentle fall turns into a smothering stream of 
snowtlakes. In an hour the ground was so cumber- 
ed that it reached to the knees of those wlio ven- 
tured out. Supper was over and the romping of th ' 
children was in full swing when Robbie cried \ " 
thought he heard somebody shouting outside. There 
was u pause in the merriment as he flung open the 
door. The snow had ceased to fall and the air was 
calm and soft. A black object wa.s seen on the road 
to the left, from which '^ame cries for help. Allan 
and Robbie dashed into the snow and struggled 
through it. 'vVe watched them but it was too ilark 
to see what they did on reaching the road. Our 
suspen.^e was ended on seeing them returning with 
a stranger, and leading a horse. Robbie took the 
horse to the stable; Allan and the stranger, covered 
with snow entered. After brushing him and ttiking 

liuFthiii St'llnr 

off \\w wraps tlio stranger sIoimI lieforu cis, a koo.1- 
loolcing limn jBwt iniddlc life. He eiplnine.1 lie Imil 
left home that morning for Toronto, his chief erniml 
to get the supplies and presents tlie lacl: cif sleigh- 
ing had hindereil liis going for sooner Overtaken 
hy the unlooked for downfall, he had halted at a 
tavern undecided what to do. The barroom wa» 
crowiled A man told him, on hearing where he waa 
going, if he tiKik the first turn to Ids left, lie would 
and a road that would \k pa.«sahle. for it was shel- 
tered hy hush. Anxious to get home and the tavern 
accommodation not inviting, he had, after watering 
his horse, started anew. Half an hour or so later, 
while pushing slowly along, a runner of his cutter 
had struck some oLstacle, the horse plunged forward, 
tipping the rig. On getting on his feet, on lifting 
the cutter, he founil a runner had been wrenched off, 
and there he was helples.s. Seeing the lights of our 
house, he shouted, and, for a long time, he thought 
in vain. While he was speaking my memory wag 
groping to place a voice that seemed an echo of one 
I had heard in the past. I looked at the face, but 
in the firm-set features that told of wrestling witli 
the world, I found no aid. It was not until the 
housecolley went up to sniff at him an<l he stooped 
to pat its head that it flasheil on me the stranger 
was the shepherd-lad who had befriended me in my 
weary tramp Ayrshire. Facing him, I said, 
'Is not your name Arehie?' 'It is,' he replied, look- 
ing surprised. 'And do you not remember the ragged 
boy your dog found under a bush, how you shared 


Thf .\itrnitivi' nt 

It * *•« 


your l>itc with him; how we wit un<)"*- your plaid 
and road thn hihle and ht'ard each ator tlie ({Ues* 
tioHH^ Ai I spoko I cmild tett Iiy hts face hiH 
memory too was at wtri; Yos. yes,' hu exclaimed, 
'it all cumc<4 hack tu inc. und you arc curly-lieaded 
Onrdon Sellar ' Had we Iwen of any other race the 
right thin^ to do woiiM have lieuii to have fallen into 
cofh utluT arm.H, but xeein}{ we were undeniunHtra- 
tiv-; Hcobt wo gripped hmuls though I Cuuld not hold 
uack the tear* of gratitude on weing the man who 
had l)een ru kind to uw. lii>4 coming wan no damper 
to the evening's joy. He made himself at home at 
once, and before he was ten minutes uuiong uh tite 
<:hildren were clamhering over liim, for he had join- 
ed them in their play. He was the sanu; tree heart- 
ed, easily -pi eased lad I had known. When, late in 
the evening, I took him to hi-* npom, wo had a long 
talk, and the Hre of friendship kindled on the Ayr- 
shire braeside burned aguin. WV liud hrrakfost to- 
gether long before daylight, for he was anxious to 
get home. It had been settled Allan would lend his 
team and long sleigh, and that I drive. The sound 
of sleighljells brought us to our tVt't, and at the door 
was the aleigh with the broken cutter piled into it 
with all the parcels that had been picked out of the 
snow, and tied to the seat was Archie's mare. I 
hesitated leaving Alice on such a day, but she in- 
sisted I must go with my friend, It was not a long 
drive but it was i slow one. I turned back into 
Yonge street, where there would be a track broken, 
and kept on it until we reached the corner to turn 

tiiinhm Sftf.'ir 

WMlwttnl. Wo riultfi «ii hour at tli.' coniBrUvern 
to fi.t.,1 iiml n»t tlie liors.-.. which coiil.l not have 
mailc the hcailway thi-j- wtru mtkinf; hail they not 
l*en a tfuin, Allan's pii.liv The way, liowfver. 
was not lon« to u», for we Im.l iimch to talk al«,iit 
Archie n«rr\teil his post life, nnil, cinimis aliout 
mine, I liail to tell hiiri my simple -tory Re.serve 
there was none. Once n(,'Bin vif were l«iys rejoicing 
in each other, ami warming to one another as true 
friends .lo in exclmnjjintj their inmost contiih^nces. 
I will not relate what he tol.l, for I will weave into 
his narrative what I ^ot afterwards from his sister 
and his father and mother, ami present it in con- 
nected form. We were passing down a concession, 
which had every indication of lieiii^- a prcwperous 
settlement, when Archie pointed to a l.riek house in 
the far distance as his. On dru»in)r near we found 
its inmates had lieen on the watch, for tllml.ling 
through the snow came four -.hildren, who dandier- 
ed in U'side us, rejoiced to see their father and 
anxious to know what he liail lironstht foj- them. 
On reachinjr, at last, the house tliere was ^'athereil 
at the door the two oldest of the family, a tine- 
lookinp; girl and a tall lad, with the mother, and 
behind tlieni an ageil couple. A hired man took the 
team, hut the mai.>, looking to the la.l at the door, 
whinnied. He jumped forward and led her to her 
»tall. 'That is his pony,' remarked Archie. What 
a scene of rejoicing on that day of joy the world 
over' Mrs Craig, to give lier name, tol.l how they 
had waited the night hefore for the coming of Archie 


I'hp Siirvutivf <>1 

, 11* 

until the younger members fell asleep in their chairs, 
how they had kept supper warm, and how, not until 
two in the morning, they had gone to bed, convinced 
he had stayed overnight somewhere on the road, for 
the possibility of misadventure they would not ad- 
mit The forenoon had been of more anxious wait- 
ing, for as time slipped they began to dread an 
accident had befallen him. To have him buck safe, 
and the parcels safe, was perfect joy, and the two 
youngest darted from the house to try the sleds 
Santa Claus had sent them by their father. Mrs 
Craig, a tidy purpose-like woman, was profuse in 
thanks to me for helping her husband. Archie's 
father and mother struck me, at tlie first glance, as 
the finest old couple my eyes had ever rested upon. 
He was tall and rugged in frame, as became an old 
shepherd, but his face was a benediction — so calm, 
so composed, such a look of perfect content. His 
companion recalled grannie, only more alert. Burns 
might have taken them as mo<lels for his song, John 
Anderson, my jo. As the sun was netting there was a 
shout of 'Auntie.' and the yoiir.gsters bounded down 
the long lane to meet a sleigh that was dragginj^ its 
way through snow as high as the box. Auntie was 
Archie's sister— like him yet unlike, the same fea- 
tures of softer moillil, lighted up witli merry smiles 
that toM of a happy heart. And there were children 
with her, and her husband, a stout hearty man with 
a loud voice. Sleigh after sleigh drov.; up the lane, 
each hailed with shouting and laughte r, for each one 
brought not only the elders of the household but 

Oonlott SeUar 


their children. What a shaking of hands and ihter- 
chaiije of giiod wishes there was, and then came 
supper. There were over fifty gne.sts, hut there was 
ample preparation in the big hack kitchen, wlicre 
supper was served When all had enough, includ- 
ing the dogs and Maisic's pussies, the older folk 
moved to the front room. In a jiffy dishes and tem- 
porary tallies disappeared in that big hack kitchen, 
and the youngsters began their games. By-and-by 
a tiddis was heard, and I am afraid there was danc- 
ing. U e had a happy evening. Two-handed cracks, 
stories, jokes, song- made the time pass too cjuickly. 
It was a novelty to me that all the guests were 
either Irish or English; tine people, intelligent, wide- 
awake OS to the necessity of ailvancing an<l making 
impnivemcnts. Plates of apples and fruit cake ap- 
pearing notified the time tor parting had come, and 
in more than one mother's arms rested a little one 
who had crept in from the big kitchen too sleepy to 
remain longer. In shaking hands with n)y new- 
found acquaintances, they all pled with me to pay 
them a visit. Before I fell asleep. I thought of what 
a fine yeomanry dwelt in the settlement, and the 
misfortune it would be if, by any legislative mis- 
step, they were constrained to leave the farm. 

Next morning I had, of course, to visit the stables 
and see the live-stock, and to judge as far as was 
possible, with two feet of snow resting upon it, ef 
the farm and its surroundings. Everj' detail told 
of a capable and energetic farmer, who knew a go<id 
horse and the best use that could be made of pig 

The Xurrntive of 


and cow. There were no loose ends, everything wm 
in its place and in tlie best of order. The hour I 
was left alone with Archie's father and mother was 
as refreshing as a lireeze from Scotia's heath-cla.l 
hills. On asking grannie whether Mirren and Archie 
were her only cliildren she answered, 'There arc two 
biding with the Lord.' After listening to what they 
told me of how they came to Canada, of what Mir- 
ren and Archie had done for them, my heart swelled 
in thanking God that ttliol piety still cast luster on 
humanity. After an early dinner I left and reached 
Allan's in time to share in the after-feast of the frag- 
ments of Christmas good things. Many a visit I 
have since that day paid to Archie, and many he 
has to me. It may be that neither of us having a 
brother we crept so close together that we are 
supremely happy in each others company even if we 
utter not a word. 

fiunlon Se/lur 




A shepherd's wage is Bma'l, unci grows smaller as 
age creeps on The young ami active get the pre- 
ference and the old have to take a lower fee at each 
hiring fair to secure emploj'ment. That was the 
experience of Archie's father. At the best, it had 
been only with thrift ends could be got to meet, but 
as he aged it was a struggle. The children hafl to 
help. Arcliie hired with a farmer and in time rose 
to be ploughman; Mirren after learning to be a dress- 
maker, found to be in .service was preferable. What 
they could spare of their earnings it was their pride 
to give in order to keep a home for their parents. 
While still a boy Archie hail shaped in his little 
head a plan of going to Canada, where there was a 
possibility of becoming independent, and had Iwgun 
early to try and save enough to tiikc him acroas the 
Atlantic. He had tixed on S50 as the sum he must 
have, but found, with all the self-denial he could 
exercise, difficult to .scrape Wgether. Emergencies 
orose that required his breaking in on his little 
hoard of savings, and spring after spring he wa» 


The \iirriitivf} of 

I in 

i 't 

disappointed in beintr unable to iail. His sister en* 
couraged liim. Like him, she wa:^ determined to 
break with the conditions that boamJ them in the 
chain of poverty. On Sunday afternoons, when 
they met, their talk was of the future that awaited 
them across the sea. It was not for themselves they 
planned and saved. Their aiu* iiiun was to give a 
comfortable home to thei, parents, fur they 
foresaw that, i; .'"iss Archie carved a farm out of the 
Canadian, they would end in becoming a charge 
to the parish, which was revolting to them and which 
they knew would break their parents' heart-*. Of 
all misfortunes that can overtake them, to the indo- 
pendent-minded Scot the acceptance of poor relief 
is the lowest degradation conceivable. It wa<t in the 
month of March, the time when ships were getting 
ready for the St Lawrence, that brother and sister 
had an anxious consultation. Ai'chie had $40. Would 
he venture to go on that amount? The risk of longer 
delay, the doubt if another twelvemonth would in- 
crease the sum, were considered. Archie wtis for 
risking alt — he wanted to end their suspense. 'Qo,' 
replied the sister, 'father might not be able to stand 
the voyage if we waited two years more,' and so it 
was settled. 

While Archie bad been scraping tt^ether the money 
needed for his passage, his mother and sister had 
been doing what they could to provide his outfit. 
The mother span and knitted stockings, a chest was 
got, and shirts and other clothing cut and sewed. 
To eke out the ship-rations provisions must be had. 

iittnlon Sflliti 


and in this neijrlibors helped— tlie wife of the farmer 
he worked for presented him with a cheese, she call- 
ed it a kebbuck, and his father's master insisted on 
his accepting two stone of meal, part of which was 
baked into oatcakes. The step Archie was to take 
was not only serious but dansiTiius. for ninny ships 
in those days wore wrecked, a few never heard of, 
and the feur that he might not reach t'anada op- 
pressed those who bade him good-by. The morning 
he left was trying. He kept a cheery countenance 
and WHS profuse in his expressions of couKdence of 
success and that l>efore long they woulii be re-united. 
Tlie father, sternly repressing his emotions in part- 
ing with his (mly son, wrung his hand. When I am 
on the hillsiile alone with the yowes I will l>e pray- 
ing Uod may lie with you— when you are in the 
bush, will you not be praying for us' That I will, 
father.' Then,' .said the old man, 'though the ocean 
roll between us we will he united in .spirit.' Taking 
his watch out of his pocket, the father held it out. 
'No, no,' .said Archie, I cannot take your watch,' 
'You nmst take it; my companion for many a year 
it will cheer you in the woods, and keep you in 
Blind of the promise you have just made.' The 
sister went with iiim to the turn of the road She 
treasured his last words and tliey were her comfort. 
'Mirren, I have covenanted with (iod, that I will 
never forget our father and mother and will do all 
that in me lies to help and comfort them.' He strode 
on Ills way to Greenock, whither his chest had gone 
by the carrier. 

Wit Xairitlive oi 


The ship made a good voyage and in time he got 
to Toronto, where, with some trouble, he was given 
a location-ticket vor a lot. Bargaining with a teams- 
ter who was taking a load to a settlement in the 
neighborhood of his lot, to leave his chest on his 
wny, lie started on foot It was well he did, for 
from what he saw on the road he learnt much of 
what settlers have to do. He watched the chopping 
of trees, the making of potash, the iKjeing in of tlie 
first crop, and the building of shanties, for in suc- 
cession he came upon settlers engaged in all these 
operations, and he was not backward in asking 
i|ueations, or slow in observing The afternoon of 
the second day he reached where the local liind- 
a<.'ent lived. There was a small gristmill, a sawmill, 
a blacksmith shop, an ashery and half a dozen houses,' 
all rudely built, planted in a surrounding of stump.s', 
with the bush encircling all. Asking at the largest 
shanty for Mr Magarth, the woman he spoke to 
pointed to a man, ba— headed and in his shirtsleeves, 
piling lioards. On hearing his business Magarth .said] 
•You re the man whose chest was left here yesterday! 
Well, it is too late in the day to show you what lot 
you have been given. Can you countr' On being 
told he could, Magarth got a shingle and a piece of 
chalk ami told him to mark down as he called out 
the measurements of the lioards. On finishing the 
pile, Archie report, d the number of feet. -Just what 
I guessed,' said Magarth, now come with me.' He 
led to tlie door of an extension at the end of his 
house, which Arcliie saw wos a primitive shop, there 

'>'(■(■./„„ Sellm 


beiiij;, in a confused heap, everything settlers could 
call for. Expliiining his cluuRhtcr who kept his liookii 
was on a visit to Toronto, he liamleil Archie an ac- 
count-book and asked liiui to write down the entries 
he would call oH; .Seated on on empty box and 
HnukinK, JIagarth recalled all the transactions since 
the last entry on the book, which Archie set down, 
astonished ut the accuracy of the memory of the 
man. who gave dates, names, and i|uantities with a.s 
much ease as if reading them from a list before him. 
This done, he ffit him to till out his report to the 
crown lands department, to write several letters to 
the firms he dealt with in Toronto, and one to his 
daughter, which was original in matter and expres- 
sion. Archie recogrnzed the shrewdness and ability 
of this unlettered man, who carrieil on with ease 
several lines of business in addition to his farm. 
After supper he made Archie sit beside him and 
asked if he would not give up his notion of taking 
up land and hire with him. Finding he was de- 
termined to ha\e a home of his own. Magarth gave 
him much advice as to how he should begin, not 
Concealing, on learning he had only ,i few dollars, 
that he was sure he would fail. After breakfast 
.Magarth told him what he could not do without, 
an.l laiil in a bundle an ax. a saw, a spokeshave, an 
auger, a hammer, nails, and would have added a 
grindstone had there been any way of carrying it 
'You'll have to come out to us when your ax needs 
grinding.' In a pail he put some Hour, peas, and a 
lump of pork, tying a frying-pan to the handle. 

Til** .\»rrntivf of 


'But I have not money enou^Ii to pay for all this,' 
ftaifl Archie. I know you haven't,' was tlic reply, 
'you lire to pny me in ashes." Sending a nmn with 
him to point out the lot, ami to stay loufir enough to 
help to raise a shelter. Archie started. Thoir way 
lay across the country, thnmgh a dense forest, for 
tlie concession his lot wa.s on lay to the north and 
no side road had lieen opened to it. His guide, whoi^e 
name was Dennis, had his ax over his shoulilcr 
and blazed the trees as they tramped on their way. 
Archie wondered why he should have Iwen given a 
lot so far bock wh<;n they were going over sii much 
land that was umx^cupied. Finally Dennis halted, 
and, after a little searching for surveyor's posts, 
which were not hard to Hnd, for the concessiun ha«l 
been laid out within a year, lie showed Archie his 
limits. 'The road allowance is here," said Dennis, 
'and if I were you I would put my shanty close to 
it, cut the logs for it off" the allowance, and kill two 
hirds with one stone, make a beginning on your road 
and have a shanty.' Archie was willing but made 
a poor tist in felling trees, and '■•tore an hour his 
hands were blistered. Dennis left to him the roll- 
ing of the logs to the chosen site and notching their 
corners. At noon they rested, Dennis lighting a 
fire and showing Archie how to cook tiour cake.s 
and fry pork at the same time. Towards nightfall 
a like meal was cooked, and creeping into a thicket 
of cedars they were soon fast asleep. Next morn- 
ing Dennis picked out ash-trees and hickories small 
enough to make handspikes and skids and the rear- 

UimUm »'///(/■ 


inj; of tlie sluuity l..w,.n. It whs Mimll, 10 hy 12 
fctt, in front 7 fi it lii<;li slnpinK l>tickwiinl. Sliuw- 
inj; luiw to lay ihiIus to lUfiUi' ii ro4>l', tinil cover tlioni 
with «lic(.'ts of firn iiinl l.iiJ'SWtHxl Imrk, Dennis left 
while tluru wiis tUyliylit enou^ih to >h(»w Ftini the 
w»y. Aichit' WHS uloiif, Imiit-.l in tlie hu.>h, yet wiw 
in iii^h ^pi^it^. The tiuxl he .-tmxl on he owned. 
Eveiyihin;,' hint j;one well wil!i him so far and he 
ItMikeil with steady confidence into the future. When 
the i-hanty was finijilieil lie Iiad to admit it was only 
a hovel, which lie would replace Ity one fit to he the 
home of tlie father tind mother wliose tijjures were 
often hefore his mind's eye. With liand.s .-^till tender, 
he went on felling trees, selectinf,' the smaller, and 
when he liad p>t a heap together he set tire, fnr he 
needed a clearance in which he wanted to plant 
poUitoes. On Saturday coming he left for MagarthV, 
for he had promised to po.><t up his accounts of the 
week, C»n rini.shing all Magarth had to do, Archie 
wrote his motlier. Wlien he hmded at Montreal he 
had sent a letter to his father telling of the voyage 
and Ins safe arrival. Now he had to send tlieni 
word of his having got a lot and that he had made 
a start in clearing it. Sunday the little hamlet was 
de.^erted. The hired men had gone to visit friends 
and had taken Magarth "s hoys with them. 'Tis the 
only outing they get,' explained Magarth, who wa.s 
surprised on Archie's preparing to return to his 
shanty, for he expected he would stay till evening. 
Not wishing to he tieholden too much to hi.s kind 
friend, he shouldered what supplies he had hought 


llif yurnithi' tii 




the night Iwfore and started Among tlie supplies 
was a line aiul a bag uf potatoes to ptiuit aiiiij tliu 

The routine of his tlaily life was monotonous — up 
with the sun to attuck the tree-t which sttKxl Iwtweun 
him un«l a livelihood. It was hmely hut he never 
grew (iespomlent. Singing, whistling, shouting, ho 
kept at hi^ work. Two of the songs of Burns wero 
his favorites — a Man's a Man for a' that ami Scuts 
wha Ime. On coming to the line, Liljerty with every 
>*low, he drove his ax into the tree witli vim. and, 
indeed, thi' trees at that time were the enemies 
he had to Hght. Saturdays he went to Magarth's 
to do wlmt writing he might have, lor his daughter 
was in no hurry to leave Toronto. Each Monday 
found Archie more handy with the ax, and neither 
heat nur mosquitoes caused him to slucken in ex- 
tending his clearance. Wet days alone made Iiirn 
take rest in his shanty, in a corner of which was lli.^ 
bed of hendock liouj;hs and fern leaves. When .sum- 
mer waned and the nights grew cold the lack of a 
chimney in his shanty made living in it intolerable, 
for the smoke circulated round until it found the 
hole in the roof intended for its escape. He thought 
over plans to get a chinmey, hut couhl hit on none 
that he could carry out without some ont' to help 
him. Fn>m time to time he had burnings of brush- 
heaps, storing the ashes in a hole he bad dug in the 
side of a hillock and covering them with big sheets 
of bark to keep them dry. The end of September, 
on making his customary visit to Magirth's, he found 

a on Ion 



a letter waiting forliim. It wiut fnitn his sisti'r, who 
expreAfteil the lU'light t))<>y felt on hearing <if hU 
havitift j^nt a farm am) )>uilt a hoti<«t', uiitl how hin 
It'ttfT, like thf one hv \w\ inailt'd t'roiii Muntrual, 
had passed from housu to houst* until everylKJily in 
the parish had road thi^ni, and tht'y had raiiwd i(uite 
a 'fiiroi-e' ahoiit Canaila and of einij^ration to ilM 
wtioils, for t!ie ac<itiiMitioii of farms of thfir own 
dMZzled all. Father and motln-r wt-re well and were 
kept in g(HM) itpirits by unticipatin^ tlif day when 
they would he able to juin him in his tine hoti^e. 
He read th«; letter a hundred tiim-s and vowed an<*w 
he would not turn aside until those it came from 
were Iwside liitn 

On speakin;^ to Ma^artli of the Htore of ashe-< ho 
had saved and of the slaith of trees that were ready 
for burning, it was arran^^ed he would send two tnen 
if Archie wouhl clear a way through the woods by 
which a one ox-sled couhl pass. His frer|uent Com- 
ings and goings across the lot had made a fiMjt-path, 
but there were decayed logs to push aside, brush to 
cut here and there, and a few branches that hung 
low. It took three days' work l>efore he was satis- 
fied a sled woidd have free passage. On a M-indiiy 
morning the men with the sled and oxen appeared 
and the burning began. There had been a month's 
drouth, so tlie burning went well, and when the 
men went )>aek at nights the big box on the sled 
was tilled with ashe.s. At Magarth's the ashes were 
measured in a bushel box and emptied into the 
leaches that stood beside the creek. On coming to 


Thi* Xurruthi' of 



•<|uare Kcountu llic wIivh paid what Arcliic wa« ilua 
»n<l li'ft n few clollarH tii liiH cruilit. THkinK «ilv«ii- 
taRc of the return trips uf the «leil, lie ha<l ({iit hia 
chent taken t<) his shanty, a (|Uailtity uf short Isninls 
to make a door anil a licil. a Im^ "f seiil wheat, and 
a Rrindstone. Elateil hy his progress he went to the 
scraping and hoein); uf liis clearance with a will, 
lifted his potatoes, pitted them, and sowed nil his 
seed. wheat. Then he tackled enlarf;iii(; his clear- 
ance nnil his daily task was afjaiii felliri|> trees. The 
weather was now often cold. He chinked the slianty 
hut with a K^pinh' 'i"l<! i" the roof to let out the 
smoke it made little ditlerence. and often he couhl 

not ){et to sleep for shiverinj,', 'I'o li({ht a lir u.le 

it w(jrse, for. not l*in){ u.sed to it. he could not stand 
the smoke, which chokeil him ami made his cyia 
smart. The second week in Xovenilier there came 
a fro.-ty snap. Before shoulderin){ his n.'i he hail 
put the potatoes ami hit of |H)rk he intended for 
dinner in a tin pail and l.uried it in hot ashes to 
sluwIyciHjk. When he came hack late in the after- 
noon, cold and tired anil hnnfiry. he o|a'neil the pail 
and found it full of cinders. The heat had Ipien too 
great. For the Krat time he lost heart, and starting 
up. with what daylight remained, made his way to 
Magarths, where supper and a welcome awaited him. 
The daughter having licen hack for some time, he 
had jrjven up his Saturday visits. She was hig and 
plump, and like her father voluhle and fond of • 
Joke. When all the others had retired for the night, 
Magttrth and Archie sat hy the Kre. Magartli guesj- 

Uitnhm SfUitr 


e<l how it was K»injf -vitli .'.\l,ic um) till him he 
could not stiiinl out thi wi h.t. Then, with kindly 
humor, he jjavc Archie to un 'iMtamI that if he ami 
Noriih wouhl make ti up ht would tnki- hiut a8 a 
partner in hi« liU]tiii«.v^. wlii'-'t wm sfmwir;; too Ini^ 
for him to manofji vUtiie. \t -he » , >t 'umied, 
making no reply Uy. ml thunk. - him loi th.- hint. 
Whtii hf turned into i lunk in :hr •nrm r of thtf 
Htore )ie wuw so tin-d thitt If u '1 ,-1, p at d dn-umt 
not of Noniii Imtof thf daily iio'i ry lu- \ia*i < iidLiin^. 
In the mnrniny Aiehii* rose u?hI. without ■vakiiijf 
unylrody, -lipped «)Ut and mude hi ^\■aytol^,< c->m- 
forties^ shiuity. Tlio-e who luve tl. ■ forest kii. w 
in hiiw many tones it speuk;*, varying with th; sea- 
Hon and the force of the wind. When in full h af 
anil swayed l»y ii summer hreeze the sound i-i of 
fttllin;,' water, of a phantom Niaj;ara; in the winter, 
when the trees are hare, the Northwest I Iwt sliriek.s 
through their tops atid there are j^roanin ,s diversi- 
fied hy sharp cries us snme decayed hranch is snapped 
or tree falls. It was amid these doleful sounds Archie 
Nwnns his ax. Hi' was nut ctmscious of the hitter 
Cold fur his work kept him warm, hut his Imiin was 
full of raekin^r thou<;hts. He had toihd like a shivi- 
for nigh ai\ months and had aceomplished little, 
with every ima;;inahle deprivation he had .•■av.-d 
nothing, and for the next six months he fi'ivsaw 
cold and hunger, which he doubted he could sur- 
vive, Here was an r»tter that meant comfort, and 
relief from a penniless condition. Hhouhl he r.'it 
accept it/ Was it not selri>^lmess that whispere'I his 


Tlif \iirriitn-f 

: tin 

_ > »"• 
I: .xJ 


iliiinsj so? Did he not ccmic to these wcx)da to hew 
out from the heart of them a home fur tliose he 
loverly Was lie going to throw up liis purpose to 
lienetit liimsellV Would tliat h,- right' Tliere was 
a wliisper, Vou will he able to help them hy send- 
ing ley. Is money-help all they can claim from 

me? Is sending them si; many dollars a month all 
the command to honor father and m')tlier means? 
Do they not desire to he beside me anil is it not my 
duty to sustain and comfort them while life lasts' 
•Shall I place other cares between them and nie, 
leaving them second instead of first? Ho he went 
on arguing mentally, until the larp onsidcration 
came uppermost, Was it justifiable lo marry a wo- 
man for wiiom he had no special regard, because by 
so doing it woidd lie to his worldly advantage? 
Then he, tor the first time in his life, tried to define 
what marriage was. Was marriage for comfort and 
ease such a union as his conscience could approve? 
It was a searching .|uestion, and -.-hile he swung the 
ax he argued it aloud What was marriage without 
love? Xo marriage, he shouted, as bis ax delvi'd 
into the side of a tree. Love alone can blend two 
lives, and without love marriage is sacrilege. No, 
h(^ would not think of Magarth's offiir, he would cast 
it behind him. and go on as he was doing. Then 
peace came '« him, and he dwelt on the commun- 
ings with his sister, and the pledge he liad given 
her on parting. For the first time tliat day he began 
to sing, and when he sat on a log to eat the bread 



he liail liniufiht fur liis ilinncr, he thri'w cruinlis to a 
s(|uirrul thiit left hci- hcile to survey liiiii. 

Two (lays Inter he I'ljuricl he wouhl have to i;o to 
Mii};i>rtli's til iri.t the steel of his ax rcneweil, fur it 
hiiil chippeil. He fiiunil only Mrs Mni»nrth at hntue, 
her hushnml iinil Xiinih hail left on a visit. In the 
store were two men, ami he listeneil to their tallj with 
interest, fnr one was tellini; how a thrivini; nearby 
settlement hail Imilt a .school ami were unalile to riml 
a teacher Askini; the name of the man who ha(J 
the enija^'in^ of one, ami where he liveil, Archie's 
resolution was made, he woulil j;o ami offer himself. 
A tramp of over a mile lirouyht him to the hi-nse. 
In Hve minutes he wa.s enrjageil at a salary cl six 
dollars a month and to hoard round The emjiiLre- 
ment was for four months. He spent the niirht with 
the settl.r and left in the mornini; to i,'et wdiat 
clothes he needed and to set his shanty in order. 
Word had ;;onc round that a teacher had 1 ii se- 
cured, and on his return in tlie afternoon tllen; were 
aexeriil callers cnrious to see him. His host wo-s a 
North of Ireland man, with a lar;^e family, who he 
was di'termineil should learn to read and write. He 
had U-en the lender in the huilding of the .school-, to which he walked with Archie the follow- 
ing forenoon. It was a li;; liniLling. aliout twenty 
feet sijuar' Tlien- were no desk.s and the seats were 
plank set on hlocks of wood. Kvery child aide to 
walk was there full of curiosity as to what school 
was like. Ari!liie's dithi'ulfiis iieiraii at one,' Not 
one of the wiiiil llie sehiiMrs had a hook of any 

Thv SiuTiitive <>/ 


kinii: those who said thi-y wantcil to h.,irn to write 
had I.O paper and no slates Had tl.iy anythin^r 
tliey ccudd recite from memory? A little girl forth" 
will. U-ga,i, Now I lay ,„c down U. sleep. With 
Kreat patience, Arcliie taught them th.' lir-t verse 
of the 2;trd psalm, ami, trying if they could si.,- it, 
found there were .several good v.jiees. He felt en- 
couraged. Telling the,., to l.ring l„,„k, of „„y kind 
next day, he ended tlie lessons by one in arithmetic, 
using the Hngers. The ,econ.l day was letter. The 
children ca..,e with all kinds of lKX,iks except school- 
Ixioks, mostly hihies. One girl had a copy „f the 
crown lanils rules ,ind legulations. Only six could 
read a sentence l.y spelling each word. They had 
U, he started from th, l»ginning, an.l Archie had 
providcl for that l.y p,-i.lucing a si..r,„thiy planed 
board on which he ha.l printe<J, with a carpenter, 
pencil, the alphabet on one side and Kgures on the 
other. The childivn, with a few exceptions were 
eager t , learn. Then !..■ got then, to i..e..,onze the 
»ee<,i..l verse of the 23r.l psal.,,, and toiight the,., a 
simple hyu.n, singing both. They were on 
singing, and a boy volunteere.1 to givi. tb.-i.. a"ong 
he h.ol hear.l. hi.<I a ehorus of Deiry ]),,wi" 
So it wi tit on. A supply of -miootl. shaved shingles 
was got an,, with bits of chalk the sehoiai-s leained 
to wr.te simple words .... I east .ip sn.ns. At lb.' 
close of each .lay Archie tol.l them a tory and ,|iie- 
tloned to se.' liow much of it they r.'i..e..ib|.|vd ,i,.d 
un.lerstoo.l. At the end of a fortnight three ,.f ll... 
•settlers visiteil to .see how uiatters were p.i.g,.— in.r 
n»d left -a.istieil. 

niinlmi .V//.I 

Mliifting his Iwanlinor-plftce uacli Sftturday Archie 
came tci know the settlers intimately, and perceived 
how little outside their daily toil there was t.) en- 
(jafje their minds He propcseil a siti^ring-dass for 
tlie youns; fellows iinil the irirls, anri set a date for 
the first mei'tinp; The evening,' came and there waa 
s.i (jreat a crowd that the school could not hold them 
so ,i numher clustered round the open door Archie 
knew nothini; alH)Ut musical notation, hut he had a 
(,'ood voice and a fjreat store of sonjjs. 'I'lie difficulty 
wiis knowleilj^e of the words, which he overcame liy 
siojlinj; whatever any numher of them knew and l.y 
repeating;' in concert verse hy verse hefnre lie raised 
the time. On the novelty wearinjj oH' :\ numln'r 
ceased to come, hut no matter how cold or stormy 

was the ni;rht the sehooll se was filled l.y younj; 

people who heartily enjoyed those two evenin^js in 
the week On a preacher arranf;ini,' to hold a fort- 
niijhtly ser vie.-, they applied themselves t.i learninff 
hymns. Without knowinr; it, Archie ha.l hio.ane 
popular. Takili.,' pleasure in his work the winter 
passe.l .piiekly. As his term .Irew ti.w.inls its cLjse 
there was a to show him some suhstantial 
toki'n of resaril. 'I'here heinj,' little money, it took 
the form of a in kin.l, s.i, on leaviiii; the 
thir.l week of .March, h.' was .Iriven to his shanly in 
a sleil la.len with parcels .it ti.iur, lumps of pork, 
l.uftcr, cooki.'s, .l.iuKhnuts, an.l the like. His small 
waffe ha.l lieen pai.l him an.l out .f it he s.j.i $] r, 
to hi.s neither 

His shanty he f,,uml l.un d in snow, the .Irift 

ri,.- .\;,,r.n 


agamst .ts west en.l oviTtoppin^ it Evcrythinir 
was ns l,e l,a,| loft it a,i,I wi.en !»• l„i,l ,1ur away 
the snow nn,i gut „t tl.e putatuis l,e I,h,I pitt^.l he 
was glaii l(, fn.l tliem untouel.i.l l.y hoA. Ho ,i,«n 
tt«sailo,l tho tn.s but in a diftorent spirit Ironrthe 
•lay when )„■ Im.l left. Ho wa.s ap,in hopeful of 
conqutrin« and there w,is much to ,ncouras;e hiin. 
The weather was u.ihlor an,l tho .layli(.ht''lon.'er. 
Mor.- than anything else that cheered hin, on to"his 
lonely task was the spring sunshine. It was awak- 
enmj; new life in tlie forest, and why not in hiru' 
On the size of his clearin.; dopondo.l wliother h.. 
wouhl be able to have Ids parents and sistor join 
hini when spring returned next year, and so, early 
and lato ho attacke,! the trees The only break in 
bis toil was when he hml to sjo to .Ma^arth's for 
«on>eth.nK !'«■ oould „„t ,1,, without a,„l few 
bour. „r ,MH.iul talk w,.,v sweet t.. the solitary man. 
Xot the least interesting topic he hear,l was that 
\nrah was ,;,,^„.j,,..l t„ „ walthy,iler in 

0„ leavu,;; ,|,o ,otth.n„ nt ui„.,v 1„. had Uught 
sch«,i the y.un- f,.|lows ,„|d |„,„ ,,, ,,.„,! j|,;,,_, 
w<,rd when he wa- ,-. ady u, burn, and they would 
come an.l helj. I„ni. The middle of .\I„v h,, „.,dkod 
to attend the preadiir.^. iIh.v. and l„.iv,r,. 1,,. ni; 
next mornintr had ammj,,.,; ,h,.v sli..uid .oni,. the 
following. M.n,.:,v. The .„„„,..; who Hocked into 
his clearanc ...,..„b)„d hnn. lo,- alnio-t eieiy «- 
.luammnce be bvi -alut,,! bin, They e.uue „-ith 
ox sleds ,.nd ebnins and, what -uipn-od' biio Is-yond 

'f'T./o/i St-lhll 

measure, was three woincn in one i)f tlii' sleds wlio 
had come to maki' dinner and took possession of his 
chanty. They worked with a will. The luf,'s were 
hauled and built into heaps and Hre set, and every 
art tlie hackwoo<lsmun knows was used to make 
them burn As ashes were scraped they were shov- 
elled into the Uxes on the sleds anil started for 
Majfarth's, returnini; witli small loads of hoards. 
With so many hands the small clearance was, late 
in the afti-rnoon. put in such a shape that Archie 
and two men who remained could do the rest. lie- 
fore the week was out. he had oata and pens sown, 
and a patch reserved for corn and potatoes At Ma- 
Carth'sSlO had heeii placed to his cr.dit for ashes 

As he was cookinj; his l.reukfast Archie was sur- 
prised liy a sound at .1 distance which he reco;;nizeil 
as tlie -trokes .,f an ,ix- Listening with rapt at 
tention, there came, 111 a tew minutes, the familiar 
erash of II tree falliiij,'. That means I have ;ri ) a 
neiKhhor somehody has uken n lot at the en i .f 
the concession,' ,aid Archie, and he .^t ahout hi, 
days work in hijjh spirit^ It w.i- ,is lim a .ley as 
a June day can lie, aiellher, 1 n., liner the world 
"Mr The hrilliant hlue of the .sky was l.,-,,iv.' ^ 
tut :.y a few snowy cloudlets driftin;; l.efor. a :,'entl. 
breeze, which tempered the warmth of the ;;lorious 
.sunshine. The heart of the yonn;; man was ^,i„,, 
and found expressien in sonj,' and whistling' as he 
wield.d the ax. What caused him to pause 111 l.liink 
astonishment' From the woods behind him, came » 


7/i#* yarrjitivf of 

voice iiin^ing () whistle ami I will come to you inv 
Ih(I .' It was a woman's voice, it was « familiar voice 
Droppiin; his nx he holimleil towunls the tijfure cmers 
ing from the hush where the >ileil-roacl eTiterml hin 
clearance. 'It is my own sister" he shuiiteil in a 
scream of joy, anil clasped her in his hrawny ;i:mis 
■(), Mirren, have you droppeil from the «ky' 1 would 
have as soon expected to meet an anijel ' 

I am just a sonsy Ayrshire l.iss un<l have come on 
my feet anil not on win;,'s. Kh. hut you've clmn^'ed 
— ye've worked over hard ' 

'It has lieen sweet work, for it was for fulher and 
mother N'lithini; wronL; with them that sent you 
here V 

I left them well, and hoping' to join us next spriiij;.' 
And how did you come — wliat started you— where 
did you j^et the pa.s>aj^.' money — how did yuu Hnd 
your way here'' 

'111 tell you after I have seen this (jrand house of 
yours. An' this is the shanty you wrote ahout with 
everything out and inside hijfgl.-de-pigjfeldy ; Ye 
are a ;;reat housekeeper to he sure. Why, ynur 
house lias not ;;ot a luni' lehimtiey) 'Did you have 
breakfiust yet- Poor fellow, u" wonder your cheeks 
are thin.' 

'Never mind. Xirren. I have planned a new house 
and with your tielp it will s,«>n he huill ,' 

That it will, Ardiie; it is to help you I have coiiio.' 

•Sittinfj side hy side on a pile of hcHlrds, Mirren 

tohl how she hail come On Arehies letter reaching 

ills mother with thre" pound- Hiielo.Mid she saw the 

finnltnt Sflljir 


one pi 

|io88il,.lity of Mirren g„ing to Csna.ia. 'The paasaRe 
money is four pounds, mother, an.l there is the buy. 
ing of what cannot Ije done without. We will have 
to wait for another remittance.' 

•Listen, and I will tell you what I t.ever even let 
on to your fatluT When he Im.l that accident si.x 
years ««„ that laid hii„ up an.l we he wouM 
•ever ^o to the hills apiin, the thought came to me 
that ,f he died the parish would have to l.ury him. 
I set It down that no such .lisjjrace would ever fall 
on our family if I could help it, ar.d when he got 

better I -t to put-l,y every penny that c A,e 

Ml many a hank I have spun and stocking 
'I t.. -et the pennies. After thinking over 
•s l,t, I counteil what I put by an.l I l,„ve 
iond seven shillings, an.l teupenc V„ur pas- 
•age. you set- is paid.' 

But I ,l»rv not lea\.' y..u' 
Mirren. y„u «i|| ,|„ a.s your m.rther »,ks yon. 
Your br.,ther help: go. an.l y.,. „.ill follow you 
»^year siMmer.' 

1 thought it all over.- sai.l Minvn, an.l ,t was 
■mied 1 ,t,.,ul.l go. It .|nite ,1 v.Mjtur.- I'.,r a 
y.mng lass to i;o alone so far, but I „as „ ,t afraid 
iK...og then- were the plain markings „f what was' 
»y .luty .So we set to work to get r,, and here 
1 aMi 

•Bl«. you, Mirren, you hai,. ,i brav,- h.-art an.l 
<io,l l«lpw.g us, we will hav,. father a.i.l niother 
with u, in am>ther twelve month, ao.l the black 
dog Want will never frighten them m.,iv.' 



Thf \iirrutivf of 

1 1. a 

I Ml 

Mirrcn wm curinus to fee what Archie had been 
doin^', hut he took her Hrat to the rising ground, 
hack in tl' ' wh, where lie had decided to build hia 
house, or ' *hen slioweil her his ciops. The rest of 
the day fiu spent in cutting and setting' up poles to 
make a belter that would serve fix n ciMtkhouse 
during the ilay ond a sleeping-place for himself at 
night At supper she told of her journey, of the 
voyage, the slow ascent of the St Lawrence, and the 
•teamboat that landed her nt Toronto. The mate 
nndcrtook to forward her chest, and pointeil nut 
Yonge-streit, at the head of the wiiurf. Without a 
minute's delay she gained it and l^gan her long 
w^'k. Late in the day she asked at a shnnty that 
stood beside the road how far she was from tlie 
corner where she hail to turn. The woman, on heor- 
ing where she was going, said she cnultl not U- tlier* 
before dark and asked her to stay overnigln.. Her 
huslianil with the two oldest of the family had gone 
to vi-iit his uncle and she was uhme with the younger 
children. Mirren gladly took her oHer and tarried 
next morning to help in cutting and fitting a dress 
for one of the girls. There were many wagons on 
the ri'.ld, hut all were loadeil with the baggage of 
immif^mnts. who. men. wonun, and all except the 
very young, trudged their weary w,-y liehimi ir 
al.>nt;8ide of tlieni. It was late in the ufter'i(».ii 
when Magarth's was naehcd. On telling her name, 
shi' «as cor.liaily welcomed. In the morning slie 
was .-hown the sledroaci that led to the lot erf l,er 
brother. The first sijjii that she was near him was 

flonlun >;<;;; 


hearing his whistling. Of the m.iney she had start- 
ed with she had ntill $2.25. 

With ilaylight neitt day they sUrted to work. 
Mirren insisteil on taking an ax with her and began 
brushing tlie trees Archie h.i.l felled. He remon- 
strated that it was not woman's work Her reply 
was, she had come to help him and .she was going 
to do so. Well, then/ he said, 'we will go t.. the 
spot where the house is to W built an.l work there.' 
(In the evening arriving on which the preacher visit- 
ed the schoolhouse, th.^y both set out to attend the 
service. Mirren had a welcome that astonished her, 
and when they heard lier sing her welcome was re- 
doubled. Archie's friend insiste,! on their staying 
until ncit day. It was late that night before Mir- 
ren got to bed, for the neighlKirs crowiled to speak 
with her and hear her sing As they walked to 

their ImmbU- I ,. next forenoon. Mirren exprcsse.l 

her amazement at the heartiness with wli,-.!, ,<l,e 
had been receiv.-.l, remarking it was her Hrst ex- 
perience with the Irish. In reply Archie said we 
ought to jud;;e pec.ile as we lin.l tlierj. putting away 
all pnjudic-s. His sojourn among them during the 
winter hod made him ashamed of his misconcep- 
tions— you Inn e to Come close to people to estimate 
their worth, mi.l he could say from his soul, '(Jod 
blev* the Irish kinder hearts do not beat in human 
brea.sf ,' and t.ihl Mirren what tl.ey ha<l done for 

The ox-sled that brought Mirrcris chest also 
brought a cros.seiit »,ivi-. and they tried it at once 



in cutting the lojyn for thi' new Hhanty. Archia* 
saying he did not like to «w her pnllin}{ the saw, 
brought out tho retort that she would not do it for 
other house than one for father iind mother. That 
summer was tin' happiest they had ever known. 
Their toil was exhamtin.j but the purpose of it and 
their mutual company bore them up. To hear tliem 
sinj^injf an*! joking it woiM b; thmi'jfht felling trees 
and .-ifiwing them into log It^ngth'^ was a recreation. 
Surh progress was made that a bee for tlie raising 
wfts set for the end of August, f'H* the season had 
iM^en early and grain was harvested It was a bee 
that was the talk of the neighborhood for months 
afterwards. Young an 1 old came, ni jr.- with a de- 
sire Ui help the lnMve lassie who had won their 
hearts than for Archie's sake, well-liked as he was, 
With her watching them, the young men vieil with 
one another and never did log walls mount faster' 
nor rafters span them than when they had reached 
their height. On a green maple branch lieing stuck 
in a gable peak to indicate progress, a wild huroo 
arose that woke the forest echoes. When the bee 
broke up all the rough work was done; what was 
left Archie could do himself with the aid of a car- 
penter and Liason, for a regular fireplace and chim- 
ney nc'jidea the latter. 

The brother and sister agreed that a less remit- 
tance than ten pounds would not do to bring their 
parents to Canada, and how to raise the $50 was a 
subject of concern to them. What produce they had 
to spare would fetch little. Their perplexity waa 

Iitnili>tt S4'Vui: 

rt'Ik'\L'd at till- cU>Hf uf OctuU-r Ity ti visit from two 
men, wIjo IisiI cuiiie to timl out if Arcliii- wiMild ii(;ttin 
Ipf tln'ir «cli<H>lma.'<ti'r Tliire wiTf iriori' fniiiilics 
now anil iimn' ^"IkjIhiw antl tlicy wmilil |ttty $7 a 
month iiml Umni nmnil. He licsitatcil. \\e couM not 
lottvc his nistir illoni', Tiiki' tlie otfi-r,' ulie (•«f;.rljr 
crii'il. 1 will );o to tlu' si'tlliliii'nt with you.' What 
w(.uM yon ilo thin'' Yoii forpt, Aichi.-, I Iwinu'il 
(lr<-«»niakin({. I will cut ami Kt iiml n.1.1 a little to 

our «ivin(;».' The -.-c 1 wwk in NoviiiiUr the 

^-chiMil wn^ openei), tliH tinif unilir l.itliT conilitions, 
for n ►lonkcepcr Imil liii>U);ht hoicks luiil »liites, anil 
Areliie fetchiil with liim a hlackhoiir'! hi- Imil eon- 
tiivccl to [Mit toyethi 1 With the rUy->chool the 
»in(.'in({ school was resuniiii. to which Mirren ailileil 
fiish intci' She (;ot all the work she couhl ihi, 
for few of the wimten knew how to cut clothes 
for theil ehililren, let alone for theniselve!<, anil were 
({lail to pay for cutting iinil littin^,'. iloio;; tlie sewinjf 
at honn'. The winter 'peil i|Uickly anil the niiihllc 
of March saw hrotlur «nil sister hack to their clear- 
ance and to the fellinf; of trees (Jn counting; their 
farninjis in Fehruary they fouacl they were ahio to 
senil to their parents the ilesired ten pounds, with 
the urpnl advice to take the first ship. How they 
would do on arrivinj; at Toronto perplexed them, 
until Mr Mnjfartli pive them the address of hi.s son- 
in-law to ench-se in their letter, assuring them Norah 
woulil care for Iheni and see to their tinisliin(( their 
journey. When June lanie Mirren expected them 
each liay and inaile exety preparation for their re- 




Ire 1^ 

t "^ Ilia 

25 mil 1.4 mil 1.6 


^3^ 'fi53 Eost ua-n st'«l 

',:"6) 288 598^ - 

Til' X.trr.ithi- 



ception. The spot in the bush where the sled-road 
ended and by which they must come, she watched 
with unflagging eagerness, but day after day passed 
and July came without their appearance. She was 
stooping in the garden cutting greens for dinner 
when a voice behind her asked, 'Hoo is a' wi' ye, 
Mirren?' With a scream of joy she clasped her 
father and mother. A loud shout brought Archie 
from the end of the clearance where he was at work 
with the ax. The reward of their toil and strivings 
had come at last, they were once again a re-united 
family. In the evening they sat in front of their 
new shanty, the clearance before them tilled with 
crops that half-hid the stumps and promised abun- 
dance. ' God,' exclaimed the old shepherd as 
he reverently raised his honnet, 'we arc at last in- 
dependent and need call no man master' For his 
age he was strong and active and bis assistance 
made Archie independent of outside help. The four 
working together, and working intelligently and with 
a purpose, speedily placed them on the road to pros- 

One defect in the backwoods life troubled the con- 
science of the old shepherd, and that was the practi- 
cal disregard for religious observance.*. He was not 
satisfied with occasional services and, when harvest- 
ing was over, made a house-to-house \ isit to see if 
sufficient money could be got to mend the situation. 
Nobody said him nay yet none gave him the en- 
couragement he had hoped. In the Old Land the 

Gonion .SV//.-*r 


only free contributiwiw tliey hud nia.l.' fur ruligiims 
purposes was the peony dropped on the pla^ on 
Sunday, so the appeal to make a siinrittce to secure 
•tated ordinances, was to them a nn city. An Eng- 
lishman asked, 'When had the King become unable 
to pay the parson?' His visits also made him aware 
that there were many children unbaptised and that 
not one of those who told liim they were church 
members had received the communion since they 
had left the Old Country. His resolution wa» taken 
—he would go to Toronto and seek out a minister, 
he did not care of what denomination, to spend a 
week or more in this new but fast-growing cluster 
of settlements. Though they did not say so to him, 
the settlers thought liis errand u crazy one. As 
chance would have ■', he did happen on a man 
as zealous for the cause as himself and with no 
pressing engagement for the time being. On his 
arriving he started with the shepherd on a round 
»t visits, exhorting and baptizing, and announcing 
he would celebrate the Lord's supper, the last Sun- 
day before his return to Toronto. So many promis- 
ed to come that it was seen the school-house could 
not hold them. The minister fell in with the sug- 
gestion that the meeting be held out-of-doors an°d 
there were men found who agreed to make ready. 
It was now October, and the trees, as if conscious 
of their departure for their long sleep, arrayed them- 
selves in glorious apparei to welcome the rest that 
awaited them. The spot selected for the meeting 
was the wide ravine hollowed out by the creek that 

The Mn mi t i Vf of 

Howeil sluggislily at the Iwltom. On the flat that 
edged the ea^t side of the creek planks were laid 
on trestles to form the table, while the people were 
expected to sit under the trees on the sloping bank 
that rose from it. From an early hour the people 
began coming. Word had spread far beyond the 
houses visited, and there were a few who liad walk- 
ed ten miles and over, The solemnity of the occa- 
sion wai^ heightened by the weather. N<,>t a breath 
stirred the air and the yellow or .scarlet leaves that 
flecked the glassy surface of the creek had fluttered 
downward because their time for parting with the 
branches had come. A bluish linze tempered the 
rays uf the sun, which was mounting a cloudless 
sky. When the minister rose to Iwgin, he faced a 
motley crowd, fur while all had <lone their best to 
be clean and neat, with rare exceptions, all were in 
their every day dress, worn and patched, for to get 
clothes is one of the difficulties of tlie new-come 
settlers. There were few aged, for the young and 
active lead the way into the bush. There were 
women with babes in their arms, and there were 
many children, gazing with open-eyed curiosity. 
The hundredth psalm was given out and the silence 
of the woods was broken by a volume of melody. 
The reading from St John where is told the insti- 
tution of the last supper, was followed by a prayer 
of thanksgiving, that even in the forest- wilderness 
heaven's manna was to be found by those who seek 
for it, witli passionate entreaty for forgiveness and 
cleanness of heart. Then singing and the sermon, 

f' onion Sflhtr 

a loving call to remember heavenly things in the 
eager seeking for what is needed for the body; the 
old truth that God is a spirit and can be approached 
only ).y each individual spirit, that no man, what- 
ever his pretensions, can come Ijetween the soul and 
its Maker, and no ceremony or oblation utfect re- 
concilement. The invitation to come to the table 
was thut all who loved the Lord should do so. 
Slowly and reverently those wlio responded moved 
downwaril to take their seats on a bench fronting 
the table of a single plank. Looking across the 
creek there faced them a luxuriant vine, clinging 
high on the trees that : upported its mass of purple 
foliage. Amid these .surroundings of Nature the 
love of Him who condemned formalism anil who 
was simplicity's very essenr was recalled. When 
the parting song was sung, i the people l*gan to 
leave to attend the home-duties that could not wait, 
the old shepherd expressed himself satisfied that 
seed had been sown that would bear fruit, and so 
it did. 



Linea on the Gordon Sellar who waa drowned 
In his boyhood 

O that day of desolation! 

O that hour of dumb despair! 
WTiy, instead, was I not taken- 

The fading leaf the bud to spare? 

Why thy joyous life thus ended? 

■Why wert born thus to die? 
Whither haat thy spirit wended— 

Here a moment then to fly? 

Come, O Faith, In all thy gladneea, 
Lift me hiffh above my woe; 

Leave with Qod this hour of darkness. 
Seeking not the cause to know, 

Nevermore, my son, I'll clasp thee, 
Nevermore thy voice I'll hear. 

Till I scan the towers of Salem 
See thee and the Saviour dear. 




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